3. Significant accounting policies (continued)
Financial instruments (continued)
Financial assets (continued) Available-for-sale financial assets
Available-for-sale financial assets are non-derivatives that are either designated or not classified as financial assets at FVTPL, loans and receivables or held-to-maturity investments.
Available-for-sale financial assets are measured at fair value at the end of the reporting period. Changes in fair value are recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in the investment revaluation reserve, until the financial asset is disposed of or is determined to be impaired, at which time, the cumulative gain or loss previously accumulated in the investment revaluation reserve is reclassified to profit or loss (see accounting policy on impairment of financial assets below).
For available-for-sale equity investments that do not have a quoted market price in an active market and whose fair value cannot be reliably measured and derivatives that are linked to and must be settled by delivery of such unquoted equity instruments, they are measured at cost less any identified impairment losses at the end of the reporting period (see accounting policy on impairment of financial assets below).
Impairment of financial assets
Financial assets, other than those at FVTPL, are assessed for indicators of impairment at the end of the reporting period. Financial assets are impaired where there is objective evidence that, as a result of one or more events that occurred after the initial recognition of the financial asset, the estimated future cash flows of the financial assets have been affected.
For an available-for-sale equity investment, a significant or prolonged decline in the fair value of that investment below its cost is considered to be objective evidence of impairment.
For all other financial assets, objective evidence of impairment could include:
significant financial difficulty of the counterparty; or
default or delinquency in interest or principal payments; or
it becoming probable that the borrower will enter bankruptcy or financial re-organisation.
For certain categories of financial asset, such as debtors, assets that are assessed not to be impaired individually are subsequently assessed for impairment on a collective basis.
For financial assets carried at amortised cost, an impairment loss is recognised in profit or loss when there is objective evidence that the asset is impaired, and is measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of the estimated future cash flows discounted at the original effective interest rate.
For financial assets carried at cost, the amount of the impairment loss is measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of the estimated future cash flows discounted at the current market rate of return for a similar financial asset. Such impairment loss will not be reversed in subsequent periods.
Annual Report 2010