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In addition, at the end of week 2, distribute Student Study Guide and explain individual mini research assignment. Assign individual 5W's topics to students and distribute Guide sheet,loading more able students at the beginning, since they will present articles first. Briefly explain what the rest of the unit will entail. Week 3 Hook: Use the Lane ESD High Desert Museum Pioneer Trunk. Spend 1-2 days weaving a narrative of emigrant life to build student interest. Intersperse readings from children's Oregon and Mormon Trail journals found in Violet T. Kimball's Stories of Young Pioneers: In Their Own Words. Our school is lucky to have a Rick Steber connection. Rick, who wrote an extensive collection of Oregon history books for children, visits and tells stories. I use his stories as read-alouds to both prepare for his visit and build context for narrative writing. I have students choose one of his characters, draw it, and adopt this character as part of their Trail group in the trail game. (see picture file) Preparations: Create a set of Fate Cards. It works well to color code them (Animal, mineral on green, weather on blue, etc.) and copy them on to heavy card stock. Take a regular die and color the dots to correspond to the fate colors you've chosen. Student groups can then efficiently roll a fate each day; it takes about 7-8 minutes to circulate through groups. As the game progresses, you can appoint daily student fate gods to be in charge of die rolling. Also, add California, Mormon, and Oregon Trail routes to your large wall map. An option is to create a game board for the wall, and use sticky note markers to move along the respective trails. (See Wall Map picture: Game board is in the lower right, taped to the classroom wall.) Divide each trail into an equal number of segments and number them, however many days you plan to use to play the Trail Game. (15 works well.) Students will all have an equal chance at being first to reach a destination (important even to 8th graders) and each number on each of the three trails corresponds to a specific location so that students can interpret fates and complete journal and trail scrapbook activities. Student groups generally move along the trail at the rate of one stop per day, and it takes about 15 class days to get through students' individual 5W's presentations. Review Project Overview (I use an overhead of Unit Overview.) Students need to be in mixed ability groups; 3 works well. Explain and discuss the Trail Game simulation. Have students use Kimball's short family biographies as the basis for their own pioneer families. Students then begin by designing their traveling groups, starting their group file of journal entries and illustrations, and by outfitting their wagons with provisions. Students are motivated to complete trip preparations, because on-task groups get to depart first! You, meanwhile, have begun modeling 5W's reporting and note-taking using the Student Study Guide. (See Missouri Compromise and Monroe Doctrine 5W's examples.) Begin class with a warm up, and proceed with the more or less

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