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Timeline of Quinine Use

20 to 40 species of Cinchona - the species are very hard to tell apart and the species will hybridize, so the exact number of species is unknown – mostly understorey trees

1820 the French chemists Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Caventou isolated the alkaloid quinine from the bark and identified it was the active ingredient in Peruvian bark

1861, an Australian named Charles Ledger obtained seeds from an Aymara Indian named Manuel Incra

by 1930, the Dutch orchards in Java produced 22 million pounds of quinine, 97% of the world’s market

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