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# AGRICULTURE – GRIST MILL

## I. GOAL

Students will learn about agriculture at Sutter’s Fort, how a grist mill works, and some of the history of growing grains and making bread.

• II.

OBJECTIVE

• A.

Students will learn how to use the grist mill to grind wheat into flour.

• B.

Students will learn about the grist mill through common school subjects – math, language, history and science.

## III. THE PEOPLE

Sutter had a large Native American workforce. However they were not trained in the use of farming tools, so he also hired emigrants from the United States or Europe, especially during the wheat harvest because that required a large workforce.

## IV. THE PLACE

Wheat was raised in a number of fields near the Fort. Also, fruit and nut trees and an extensive vegetable garden were located north of the Fort.

## V. MATHEMATICS – WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

Captain Sutter used a Spanish unit of volume for measuring wheat, the fenega.

1 fenega = 1.6 bushels

One bushel of wheat yields enough whole wheat flour for 90 one-pound loaves of whole wheat bread.

16 oz dry weight

=

1 pound

8 oz

=

1 cup

2 cups

=

1 pint

2 pints

=

1 quart

4 quarts

=

1 gallon

8 quarts

=

1 peck

4 pecks

=

1 bushel

1 bushel

=

32 quarts

## ELP Agriculture-Grist Mill

Page 1 of 6

Rev 8/08

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