The Commission's questionnaires in this preliminary phase investigation requested comments regarding the differences and similarities between coated free sheet paper and coated groundwood paper in terms of the Commission’s like product factors, including (1) characteristics and uses; (2) interchangeability; (3) manufacturing processes; (4) channels of distribution; (5) customer and producer perceptions; and (6) price. The following comments were received:
Coated Free Sheet Paper AND Coated Groundwood Paper
Characteristics and Uses
“Differences: Basis weights, lignin content, reversion, smoothness. Similarities: Both used for catalogs and magazines.”
“Coated free: generally brighter, smoother, better print quality, stronger physical specifications. Coated groundwood: generally lower brightness, lower basis weight, lower physical specifications, tendency to yellow prematurely.”
“CFS is manufactured from pulp that may not contain more than 10 percent, by weight, groundwood content. This "chemical" pulp (also known as kraft pulp because it is produced using the kraft process) is produced using chemical agents to break down cellulose content. The raw material for CGW is groundwood pulp. This pulp is produced using mechanical means (physical grinding) to break down cellulose content.
As a result of these different raw material inputs, a key difference between CGW and CFS paper, at the same basis weight, is superior strength (tear, fold) for CFS. Regardless of basis weight, CFS paper is more permanent, being less likely to yellow upon exposure to light, heat, and environmental pollutants, a property necessary for archivability. Finally, CFS paper is inherently brighter than CGW, a desirable property for high quality graphic reproduction.
Differences in production processes also result in differences in physical attributes of the product. Coated groundwood products tend to be of lighter basis weights and possessing of a rougher printing surface when compared to coated free sheet. This results in poorer dot definition and ink holdout yielding an inferior printed image and overall net impact.
Thus, CFS serves in more durable applications (books, annual reports), and prestige multi-color publications (e.g., fashion and photography magazines, high-end catalogues, high-impact advertising).”
“Coated freesheet (CFS) is considered to be higher quality than Coated Groundwood (CGW) in several ways. First, the absence of groundwood fiber in CFS allows for a smoother printed surface, leading to better reproductive fidelity of photographic images. Second, the lack of groundwood fiber allows for a whiter, bluer shade, and generally a higher brightness. However, CFS basis weights are generally limited to the higher basis weight ranges (38#/3300 sq ft to 100#/3300 sq ft). Because of the opacity of the groundwood fiber, CGW is generally available in much lighter basis weights (down to 26#/3300 sq ft). Thus, the end uses of the two papers are somewhat mutually exclusive. For catalogs,