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Coated Free Sheet Paper From China, Indonesia, and Korea - page 168 / 198

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“The major difference is in the production of the fiber for the two grades. Both grades use Kraft fiber, but CGW grades also incorporate >10% groundwood or Thermo-Mechanical Pulp fiber. This fiber is mechanically prepared, with much of the lignin remaining in the fiber. This leads to higher opacity at lower basis weights, but interferes with brightness, whiteness and smoothness of the finished product. Groundwood equipment is much like it sounds: logs are ground against grindstones to separate the fibers. TMP is similar, but chips are used and they are treated with steam to enhance the efficiency of the grinding process. Kraft paper is chemically prepared, with essentially all lignin being removed, and then burned in a recovery process that allows for 95% + recovery of cooking chemicals.”

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“The pulp-making process for groundwood and free sheet is very different, involving different facilities, different processes, and some different materials (both use wood fiber, but CFS also requires chemicals). Coated groundwood paper and coated free sheet paper can be manufactured on the same paper machines, for example by ***. There is some transition time resulting from changes in fiber supply and styling (brightness, shade, etc).

The *** mills do not have the capability of producing groundwood fiber and do not make groundwood paper. As noted above, these mills do not have groundwood pulp capability and there is no commercial market for groundwood pulp.”

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“Coated groundwood is made in one process with in-machine coating. Coated freesheet is coated offline. Only one of our machines, ***, a small machine, can make both.”

Channels of Distribution

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“Both CFS and CGW are distributed through the same four channels: direct to customer, direct to printer, sold to broker, sold to merchant. The difference between broker and merchant is that the broker never takes physical possession of the product. CGW is sold more often direct and through brokers. CFS is sold more often through merchants.”

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“Coated groundwood is primarily sold direct to customers/endusers/or publishers. Coated free sheet is sold predominantly through merchant distribution.”

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“Both coated free sheet and coated groundwood use multiple channels of distribution. In some cases product is sold direct to large volume purchasers (printers, publishers, corporate end users, office superstores, etc.) while substantial volume is also managed through intermediaries (i.e., Paper merchants and/or brokers). Coated groundwood would evidence a higher percentage sold direct as the product applications are more heavily weighted to applications that lend themselves to a direct sales channel but

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