DOMESTIC LIKE PRODUCT ISSUES
No like product arguments with respect to CFS paper have been advanced by the parties to these investigations, but data were nonetheless gathered on other potentially similar products and are summarized below. Two of the products for which information was gathered, coated groundwood and uncoated free sheet, are categories within the hierarchy of graphics papers identified above that are in certain respects similar to CFS. Information was also elicited from producers regarding coated kraft paper and paperboard, which are not considered graphics paper but which are somewhat similar. Finally, information was sought concerning the potential differences between C2S and C1S products, both of which are included in the scope of these investigations. Table I-2 presents recent U.S. production statistics for various grades of coated and uncoated paper.
Table I-2 Paper and paperboard: U.S. production of various grades, 2003-06
Of the other products for which information was sought, uncoated free sheet was the most likely to be produced by U.S. CFS producers. Among the ten U.S. CFS producers that submitted questionnaires, six reported that they also made uncoated free sheet paper.
Physical Characteristics and Uses, Manufacturing Facilities, and Production Employees
The most significant physical difference between CFS and coated groundwood37 paper is the presence of significant amounts of mechanical pulp in the coated groundwood paper.38 The advantages of mechanical pulp are that it is high yield relative to chemical pulp and that it is high in opacity. A major disadvantage is that mechanical pulp retains the lignin that was in the original wood.39 Because lignin discolors (i.e., yellows) with age, groundwood paper is used where permanence is not necessary. Coated groundwood is used principally for weekly publications (e.g., Time, Newsweek) and low-end mail order catalogs where permanence is not a necessary feature but where weight and, therefore, postal costs are important.40
C o a t e d g r o u n d w o o d p a p e r i s g e n e r a l l y l i g h t e r i n b a s i s w e i g h t , l e s s b r i g h t , a n d h a s l o w e r p h y s i c a l CFS paper has superior tear and fold strength, is specifications (i.e., rougher surface) than CFS paper.41
inherently brighter, and is less likely to yellow.42
However, because of the opacity of groundwood fiber,43
37 Traditionally, to produce groundwood (i.e., mechanical) pulp, bolts of wood were ground against large grindstones to separate the fibers. Modern groundwood pulp mills grind wood chips between large steel plates sometimes with various amounts of heat, pressure, and/or chemicals added.
39 Technically speaking, lignin is the noncarbohydrate portion of the cell wall of plant materials, which generally speaking is the stuff that holds the cellulose fibers together in wood. The Dictionary of Paper, 4th ed. s.v. “lignin.”
40 Coated groundwood paper has moved toward lighter basis weights to offset postal rate increases and the correspondingly higher cost of publication distribution. Coated Groundwood Paper from Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom, Inv. Nos. 731-TA-487-490 and 494 (Final), USITC Publication 2467, December 1991, p. A-7.
*** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 8; *** response, p. 10. *** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 10. *** producers’ questionnaire response, att. II-3f.