coated groundwood paper can be manufactured in basis weights ranging from 26 to 60 pounds (25" x 38" 500 sheets).44
Provided that a paper mill has the capacity to supply both chemical and mechanical pulp, the same paper machines can be used to make either coated groundwood or CFS paper as economic/market conditions dictate. However, only three producers of CFS paper reported having the capacity to produce both coated groundwood and CFS paper. One U.S. producer reported that coated groundwood paper is more apt to be manufactured on paper machines with on-machine coaters .45
Uncoated free sheet and CFS paper are similar in that they have a common uncoated free sheet base stock, but the manufacture of CFS paper requires additional equipment and raw materials to complete the manufacture of CFS paper.46 For a given basis weight, uncoated freesheet is bulkier than CFS paper,47 consumes more ink, and has inferior printing surfaces (i.e., brightness, smoothness, and gloss). In comparison, CFS paper has higher print performance and fidelity due to superior ink retention (i.e., hold out).48 Several U.S. producers reported that uncoated free sheet was sometimes made on coated paper machines but that this was typically done to fill paper making capacity that would otherwise be idle.49
In contrast to CFS paper, which is primarily made from hardwood pulp, coated kraft paper is typically made mostly from softwood pulp. It is distinct from CFS paper in that it is often heavyweight paper ranging in caliper (thickness) from a low of 9 or 10 points to a high of 22 points and primarily s e r v e s p a c k a g i n g a n d o t h e r c o n v e r t i n g e n d u s e s . 5 0 A t b a s i s w e i g h t s u n d e r 5 0 p o u n d s , C 1 S k r a f t p a p e r i s According to petitioner, there are physical reported to be stronger than CFS paper for bag products.51
differences between CFS paper and coated kraft paper (e.g., smoothness, bulk, and coating) resulting in part from the use of rotary flexographic or rotogravure presses typically used in converting operations.52
Essentially C1S and C2S papers are identical except for the absence of coating on one side. Tear strength and stiffness might be somewhat different for sheets of the same basis weight.53 The customers’ applications determine whether a C1S or C2S sheet is needed.54 Therefore, C1S serves applications (e.g., labels, covers, folders, laminated products, gift wrap, box wraps, signage, posters, bags, and envelopes) where printing is required on only one side.55 Generally, U.S. CFS producers can manufacture either C1S or C2S grades although one U.S. producer reported that its paper machines were limited by their configuration to production of C1S grades.56
. . *** *** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 8. *** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 9; *** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 4. *** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 8. *** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 7. *** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 7; *** response, p. 8, and *** *** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 12. *** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 9. *** *** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 13. *** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 10. *** producers’ questionnaire response, Att. II-3h; *** response, p. att II-3; and *** response, p. 11. *** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 6.