Although there is some interchangeability between coated kraft paper and CFS paper in certain end uses (e.g., cover, bags), it is generally limited to markets where CFS paper is sold to converters.69 For heavy weight grades of coated kraft paper (e.g., bristols, solid bleached sulfate), the stiffness of the sheet is an important performance specification, and unlike CFS paper cover grades that are typically sold by weight, bristols are generally sold on the basis of caliper. End uses for bristols, many of which require C1S, include clothing tags, lottery tickets, playing cards, table-top tents, hotel "do not disturb" signs, greeting cards, calendars, post cards, as well as paperback book covers.
Customer perceptions for C2S and C1S are generally similar, although C1S is reportedly more apt to be sold to converters than is C2S. Producers perceive C1S to be more technically challenging because of the requirements of downstream converting processes.70 The necessity for C1S to run well in customers’ converting equipment makes a formal supplier qualification process for C1S more likely than for C2S.71 C2S can substitute for C1S as long as the customer doesn’t mind the side-to-side surface difference.72 However, C1S cannot substitute for C2S because C2S applications require the same surface characteristics on both sides of the paper.73
Channels of Distribution
Generally, channels of distribution are the same for CFS paper and other types of graphics papers in that they are either sold directly to large users or to distributors (i.e., paper merchants and/or brokers).74 However, the relative importance of one segment or the other may vary. Reportedly, the majority of CFS is sold through merchants.75 Coated groundwood, on the other hand, is more likely to be sold direct because the end uses for coated groundwood (e.g., weekly magazines) are more heavily weighted to applications that lend themselves to direct sales to large users.76 The types of customers to which direct sales are made may also differ. CFS paper is sold directly to users such as magazine, catalogue, and book publishers, whereas direct sales of uncoated free sheet often go to envelope and forms converters and office supply stores in addition to book publishers.77 Reportedly, coated kraft paper is sold mostly to converters, particularly for flexible packaging (e.g., bags, candy over-wrap sleeves).78 C1S is more apt than C2S to be sold direct than to distributors. Large customers for C1S include various converters such as litho laminators, pressure sensitive label OEMs, and metallizer OEMs.79
*** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 9, *** *** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 11. *** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 13. *** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 10. *** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 11.
74 According to one producer’s definition, brokers differ from paper merchants in that they never take possession of the paper. *** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 9, and *** response, p. 8.
*** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 7 *** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 8, and *** response, p. 11. *** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 7, and *** response, p. 9 *** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 6; *** response, p. 12. *** producers’ questionnaire response, p. 13.