The SQ3R method
Survey: You first gain a general impression of the book by looking at the contents page, preface and introduction.
Before reading the section, ask yourself why you are reading it - what is the purpose?
Read: Don’t make notes or underline as you read. Do this only after you have understood a passage.
Recall: Go over what you have read by either orally summarising what you read or by taking notes. Recall immediately after reading greatly assists memory. Recalling checks information is going in, being stored, and can be retrieved. Don’t stop to recall after each paragraph – it interrupts your reading flow.
Review: Go over your reading material soon after first learning – it helps to ensure memory traces are deepened into long term memory. Review within 24 hours.
Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 261-271.
Armstrong, K., & Weber, K. (1991). Genetic engineering - a lesson on bioethics for the classroom. The American Biology Teacher, 53(5), 294-297.
Bakopanos, V., & White, R. (1990). Increasing meta-learning. Part 1. Encouraging students to ask questions. Set(1)11, 1-6.
Butterfield, C. (1987). Values and biology. Cheltenham, Victoria: Hawker Brownlow Education.
Carr, M., Barker, M., Bell, B. Biddulph, F. Jones, A., Kirkwood, V., Pearson, J. and Symington, D. (1994). The Constructivist Paradigm and Some Implications for Science Content and Pedagogy. In P. Fensham, R. Gunstone & R. White (Ed.), The Content of Science. London: The Falmer Press.
Cheek, D. (1992). Thinking constructively about science, technology and society education. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Cohen, E. G. (1994). Restructuring the classroom: Conditions for productive small groups. Review of Educational Research, 64, 1-35.
Conner, L. (1999). Investigating Cancer Issues: A year 13 project. Paper presented at the 30th annual conference of A.S.E.R.A. Rotorua, New Zealand. 8 - 11 July, 1999.
Conner, L. (2000). The inclusion of social issues in the Science and Technology Curriculums in N. Z. and the implications for teaching. Pacific Asian Education 12, (1) 19-30.
Conner, L. (2002). Learning about social and ethical issues in a Biology Class. PhD thesis. Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
Conner, L. (2003). The importance of developing critical thinking in issues education. New Zealand Biotechnology Association Journal, 56, 58-71.
Conner, L., and Gunstone, R. (2004). Conscious knowledge of learning: Accessing learning strategies in a final year high school biology class. International Journal of Science Education, (in press).
Costa, A. L. (1991). Mediating the metacognitive. In A. L. Costa, (Ed.), Developing minds: A resource book for teaching thinking, vol 1. (pp. 211-214). Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Dawson, V. (1996). A constructivist approach to teaching transplantation technology in science. Australian Science Teachers Journal, 42(4), 15-20.
Dawson, V. M. & Taylor, P. C. (1998). Establishing open and critical discourses in the science classroom: Reflecting on initial difficulties. Research in Science Education, 28(3), 317-336.
De Bono, E. (1992). Teach your child how to think. London: Viking.
Fien, J. & Williamson-Fien, J. (1996). Global perspectives in studies of society and environment. In R. Gilbert, (Ed.), Studying society and environment: A handbook for teachers. (pp. 125-140). Melbourne: MacMillan.
Fisher, R. (1998). Teaching thinking: Philosophical enquiry in the classroom. London: Cassell.