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Introduction to the Project on Bioethics for Informed Choices - page 33 / 115





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Bioethics Education563

Owing to TS there exists only one naturally valued world. Values are actualized and reproduced by TS, together with which the value-ability has emerged and the phenomena of formation and decay have acquired an axiological dimension. Value (an ontic category) is a factual, processual state-of-affair, of which the living source of  valuableness is an internal constitutive element. The valuableness (an ontological category) of a value is the relation of sui generis active, appetitive non-indifference of a valuer towards given configurations of empirical qualities it meets within the environment. Hence, the value judgments (is-statements) denoting the existence of brute valued facts acquire cognitive (verifiable) status and they can serve as methodologically proper premises for derivation of judgments of obligation (ought-statements).

The structure of vital values - both organismic ones (e. g. health) and biotic community ones (e.g. eco-equilibrium) - and moral values (perhaps aesthetic ones as well) constitutes the environmental life-quality (ELQ), or the essential state for Life on Earth to self-continue in the process of natural multiplication as well as selection. As culture is an adaptational system and the multi-dimensional niche of HS, its existence depends on human observing the standards of ELQ.

3.1.1. Evolutionary Ethics/Axiology (detailed contents):

1. Basic conceptual distinctions & the theoretical structure of bioethics

1.1. The review of bioethical issues

2. The basic characteristics of spirituality

2.2. Sentience and neurogenesis of valuation.

2.3. The trap of freedom (understood as the adaptive flexibility of a species)

3. The Origin and Teleonomy of Moral Sensitivity - eco-evolutionary identification of morality.

3.1. The Thermodynamics of Morality: communicative roots of morality

3.2. Moral subjectivity and moral agency  

 3.2.1. Animality and Humanity

3.3. Aggression and Altruism: neonaturalism towards the tradition of ethology and sociobiology

 3.3.1 The function of morality in human culture

4. The Question of Values in Nature and Evolution

4.1. The Ontological Status and Logical Structure of Value

 4.1.1. Value and Valuableness

4.2. The Classification and Hierarchy of Values

 4.2.1. The Basic Relational Typology of Values  

 4.2.2. Vital Values (Values constituting Life)

 4.2.3. Moral Values and the Category of Environmental Life-Quality (ELQ)

5. The Axiology of the Biosphere

  5.1. The Transcendental Subject of valuation and cognition.     

  5.2. Values in the Course of Evolution. The essence and teleonomy of valuation.         

  5.3. The Examination of the Category of Intrinsic Value

  5.4. The Position of Moderate Environmental Relativism of Values              

6. The Conditions of Inference of Ought-Propositions         

6.1. Being and Oughtness                                                   

6.2. The Naturalistic Fallacy and the Naturalistic Fallacy Fallacy         

3.2. Environmental Ethics/Axiology (detailed contents):  

         (which can also be conducted as an individual one-semester course)


Basic questions, theoretical trends and approaches in contemporary environmental


   Anthropic ethics (traditional and revised humanism); biocentrism and pathocentrism; land ethics and ecocentrism; Earth Ethics; Gaia hypothesis; cosmic (solar) ethics; deep ecology; eco-feminism; personalistic  organicism; neonaturalistic proposal; eco-ethical thought in religious systems (comparative approach).

2.  Sources and factors forming the history of Homo sapiens' speciesism.  

2.1. The typology of human attitudes to nonhuman forms of Life.

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