through hands and intellectual activities.
Effective Bioethics Education for High School Students
In our opinion the affective domain is almost determined by the environment and the cognitive domain is almost genetic. To introduce Bioethics education for students from the age seven to fourteen it will be effective if the teaching material is prepared in such a way that the affective domain is having a high degree of application compared to the cognitive domain. i.e., Affective > > Cognitive.
Individualization of Instruction-Modular Approach
What once was an art-the art of teaching is now a Science-Pedagogy-built on firm foundations and supported by research findings in Psychology, Physiology, Sociology, Anthropology and Linguistics.
Pedagogy was confined in the past to giving instruction to the young i.e., ‘giving children a start in life’ as the etymology implies. Now the meaning we give to education and thereby to pedagogy is more vast and complex. It includes the cultural process of bringing forth and developing all an individual’s potentialities, all his life. Lifelong continual education is the mark of modern pedagogy. It takes to account, the individual, his capacities, his mental structures, his interests, motivations and needs while he is a member of the group. In this view, the teacher or the instructor is not the only active agent but the pupil, the learner, who is being educated plays an increasingly active role in his own education. The basic assumption is that all the teaching activities have one primary objective and that is instigation of learning and appropriate changes of behaviour in students; all learning is individual, private and personal.
In the past twenty years, many innovations aiming at evolving more effective and more flexible forms of education focusing on individualization of instruction have emerged. Non-graded schools, polyvalent classes, unstreamed classes, community colleges, open Universities, non-formal education, modular scheduling, personalized scheme of instruction are some of the dimensions of the wave of innovation. The common features of all these new schemes are:
Recognition of individual differences
Adaptation of instructional procedures to the requirements of individual learner.
Personal diagnosis and practice of self-education.
Working at one’s own pace, at one’s own level and rate.
Commitment to goals or objectives by the learner.
Working in small groups in development of social skills.
Use of large group lectures and demonstration as vehicles of motivation.
Diagnostic, formative and summative evaluation by the self-proctoring system, which acts on the principle of success orientation.
Physical freedom to move about in the classroom, to facilitate informal activity.
Variety of instructional material to encourage inquiry and discovery.
Alternative instructional material to accommodate the different learning styles of the different learners.
Small group experiences in the form of simulation, games, discovery experiences, realistic problems etc., for learning higher level cognitive skills and abilities.
Teachers are facilitators of learning and not purveyors of information.
Should be able to relate to and work with various types of individuals in small groups as well as a total class.
Teachers should be able to guide the achievement of effective and social goals as much as cognitive goals.