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Maternal and Child Health Bureau ~ 23

Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP): a national collaborative clinical study of low birthweight preterm infants.

Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR): development of the fetus that is delayed related to gestational age.

Intraventricular hemorrhage: bleeding into or near the ventricles within the brain; severity ranges from Grade I to Grade IV.

Low birth weight: infants weighing less than 2500 g at birth.

Myelomeningocele: a congenital defect that results in a hernia (containing the spinal cord, the meninges and cerebral spinal fluid) along the spinal column, also called spina bifida.

Neural tube defects: any defect of the brain and spinal cord that is caused by failure of the neural tube to close during growth during pregnancy.

Prader-Willi syndrome: a genetic disorder marked by hypotonia, short stature, hyperphagia and cognitive impairment.

Rett syndrome: an X-linked disorder marked by progressive neurological deterioration, seizures, and microcephaly.

Scoliosis: a sideways curve of the spine resulting in an S shape of the back.

Small for gestational age: infants whose birthweights are less than expected for their gestational age; <10th percentile is often used.

Symmetric IUGR: IUGR that has resulted in weight, length, and head circumference measurements that are less than expected for gestational age.

Triceps skinfold measures: measurement of the skin and subcutaneous fat layer around the triceps muscle, used with arm circumference measurement to estimate fat and muscle stores.

Turner syndrome: a disorder in females marked by the absence of one X chromosome, typically characterized by ovarian failure, genital tissue defects, cardiac problems, and short stature.

Trisomy 21: a genetic disorder in which an individual has an extra 21st chromosome, typically characterized by low muscle tone, cardiac problems, GI malformations, and a distinct facial appearance; also called Down syndrome.

Very low birth weight: infants weighing less than 1500 g at birth.

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