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Activated Alumina (All Grades), Solid

WHMIS Number: 00062014 Page 2

Xebec Inc. Date of Revision: 2006 February 10

The following health effects data pertains only to Activated Alumina. Activated alumina

adsorbs certain gases and liquids. While the alumina itself is principally inert, the bead/powder may exhibit properties of absorbed material. (3)

. Inhalation: Product may be mildly irritating to the nose, throat and respiratory tract and

may cause coughing and sneezing. Excessive contact with powder may cause drying of mucous membranes of nose and throat due to absorption of moisture and oils. See "Other Health

Effects" Section.

. Skin Contact: This product may cause irritation due to abrasive action. Excessive contact with powder may cause drying of the skin due to absorption of moisture and oils. May cause

defatting, drying and cracking of the skin. May cause staining. . Skin Absorption: Not likely to be absorbed through the skin.

. Eye Contact: This product may cause irritation, redness and possible damage due to abrasiveness. Excessive contact with powder may cause drying of mucous membranes of the eyes due to absorption of moisture and oils.

. Ingestion: This product may cause mild gastrointestinal discomfort. Ingestion of large amounts may cause intestinal obstruction.

Other Health Effects: Effects (irritancy) on the skin and eyes may be delayed, and damage may occur without the sensation or onset of pain. Strict adherence to first aid measures

following any exposure is essential.

May cause staining, metal fume fever, pulmonary fibrosis and pneumoconiosis. Metal fume fever can be caused by inhalation of fumes formed in the air from welding or heating the

metal. Symptoms of metal fume fever occur about 4 to 12 hours after exposure and usually

last about 24 hours. Recovery is complete with no apparent permanent disability. The symptoms resemble the "flu" and include: sweating, shivering, headache, fever, chills,

thirstiness, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, weakness and tiredness. (4)

A metallic or sweet taste in the mouth, dryness or irritation of the throat and coughing may occur at the time of exposure to the metal fumes. (4)

Some workers develop a short-term immunity so that repeated exposure to the fumes does not

cause metal fume fever. This immunity is quickly lost after short absences from work (weekends or vacations). (4) Pneumoconiosis is the deposition of dust in the lungs and the

tissue's reaction to its presence. When exposure to the dust is severe or prolonged, the lungs' defenses are overwhelmed.

A severe scarring of the lungs (fibrosis), referred to as Shaver's disease, has been associated with production of corundum abrasives which involved exposure to the fine

airborne fumes of Aluminum Oxide and Silica. This disease worsens even after exposure has

stopped and has caused death in serious cases. Exposure to Crystalline Silica or to the mixed dust is believed to be responsible. Early symptoms of the disease include cough,

excessive mucous productions and shortness of breath upon exertion. Modern exposure controls have almost removed the threat of this disease. (4)

Evidence of scarring of the lungs (pulmonary fibrosis) has been reported among workers exposed to Aluminum Oxide dust or fume has, in some cases, been attributed to Aluminum

Oxide exposure. However, some of the reports were individual cases, the exposure was usually mixed and other studies have failed to show similar effects. (4)

Some changes in the lung function and chest X-rays have also been observed in workers exposed to aluminum oxide. However, these changes have been attributed to chronic bronchitis related to excessive dust exposure and not specifically to Aluminum Oxide. (4)

Prolonged and repeated exposure to Aluminum may cause pulmonary fibrosis, numbness of the fingers and encephalopathy (a degenerative disease of the brain).

There may be a relationship between aluminum exposure and a brain disease which causes early senility (Alzheimer's Disease), but at present this is unproven and controversial.

Asthma-like symptoms have been reported in association with refining aluminum materials and fumes from aluminum soldering. (4)

Ingestion of large amounts of Aluminum salts over a prolonged period of time may lead to phosphate deficiency, based on animal and human information. Prolonged ingestion of very

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