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[4] Larzer Ziff, ed., Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1959), 216; Franklin often focused on industry as a way to wealth and success: "Drive thy Business;" "Industry need not wish;" "There are no Gains without Pains;" "At the working Man's House Hunger looks in, but dares not enter;" Diligence is the Mother of Good-luck;" "God gives all Things to Industry;" "Then plough deep, while Sluggards sleep, and you shall have Corn to sell and to keep." Ibid. For commentary on Franklin's conception of economic success and how it relates to contemporary society, see Robert Wuthnow, Poor Richard's Principle: Recovering the American Dream through the Moral Dimension of Work, Business, and Money, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996).

[5] Abraham Lincoln, "Free Labor…Gives Hope to All," in Mario M Cuomo and Harold Holzer, eds., Lincoln on Democracy, (New York: Harper Collins, 1990), 161. See also Gabor S. Boritt, Lincoln and the Economics of the American Dream, (Memphis: Memphis State University Press, 1978). For more on free labor ideology, see Eric Foner, Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970).

[6] For more on the Alger myth, see Ralph D. Gardner, Horatio Alger, or, the American Hero Era, (Mendota: Wayside Press, 1964); John W. Tebbel, From Rags to Riches: Horatio Alger and the American Dream, (New York: Macmillan, 1963); Celeste Macleod, Horatio Alger, Farewell: The End of the American Dream, (New York: Seaview Books, 1980).

[7] Max Weber, the German political philosopher and sociologist, is most well known for theorizing the connection between the tenets of Calvinism and the rise of capitalism. Like Benjamin Franklin, Weber focused on hard work, thrift, and self-discipline to succeed and ultimately gain wealth. Weber, however, insisted that such a work ethic also helped to quell one's anxieties regarding the Protestant concern over predestination. For many, financial success was one indication that God approved of their hard work and thus they had achieved the coveted state of grace, and subsequently a place in Heaven. See The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Talcott Parsons, translator, (London: Unwin Paperbacks, 1985). For an additional development of the Protestant Work Ethic, see R. H. Tawney, Religion and the Rise of Capitalism: A Historical Study, (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1926).

[8] Daniel T. Rodgers, The Work Ethic in Industrial America, 1850-1920 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press), 1974; Robert Eisenberger, Blue Monday: The Loss of the Work Ethic in America, (New York: Paragon House), 1989.

[9] Oakley, God’s Country: America in the Fifties, 239; David Reisman notes that Americans changed their behavior because of social pressures. They became “other-directed,” or “guided by a determination to achieve goals set by colleagues and contemporaries. See The Lonely Crowd, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1960), 15, 22.

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