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Conclusions

Biomass from forest, wood industry residues and agriculture residues are available in many regions. Areas in which distribution and logistics satisfy the requirements for the use of such biomass in steel industry are available.

A cost comprises between 30 and 60 €/t DRI is roughly estimated; although the rapid variation of oil prices can affect significantly, in the future, the transport cost, hence the final cost.

The characteristics of the considered biomass to- gether with the available studies on biomass gasifica- tion suggests syngas purification needs.

The most sulphurisation. important

purification

step

is

de-

This operation is currently performed in syngas at industrial scale with system in which the gas is cooled.

Hot desulphurisation would increase strongly the global efficiency of the process.

Purification of syngas from sulphur compounds at high temperature are under development. The op- eration can be performed both inside the gasifier and in external units (in this second case the purification efficiency is much higher), by using appropriate abatement systems

Other purification steps, like dust and tar can be considered not strictly necessary for the iron ore reduction step in the shaft furnace. However the implementation in the cycle of specific units for dust and tar abatement would increase the life cycle of plant components and flow lines.

Acknowledgements

The present work is part of the ULCOS program, which operates with direct financing from its 48 partners, especially of its core members (Arcelor- Mittal, Corus, TKS, Riva, Voestalpine, LKAB, Saar- stahl, Dillinger Hütte, SSAB, Ruukki and Statoil), and has received grants from the European Commission under the 6th Framework RTD program and the RFCS program1.

References

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[2] G.Vizzini, A.Bardi, E. Biagini, M. Falcitelli, L. Tognotti, “Prediction Of Rapid Biomass Devolatilization Yields With An

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[11] D. J. Stevens: Hot Gas Conditioning: Recent Progress with Larger-Scale Biomass Gasification Systems; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. NREL/SR-510-29952.

[12] Z. Haq: Biomass for Electricity Generation; Energy Information Administration (http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/analysispaper/biomass/)

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[15] R. Alvarez-Rodríguez, M.C. Clemente-Jul: IGCC sulfur compounds abatementwith earth alkaline sorbents. Interna- tional Conference on Coal Science and Technology. The University of Nottingham. 28/08-31/09 2007.

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SP12 – ULCOS-4, October 2008

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