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Biomass from forest, wood industry residues and agriculture residues are available in many regions. Areas in which distribution and logistics satisfy the requirements for the use of such biomass in steel industry are available.

A cost comprises between 30 and 60 €/t DRI is roughly estimated; although the rapid variation of oil prices can affect significantly, in the future, the transport cost, hence the final cost.

The characteristics of the considered biomass to- gether with the available studies on biomass gasifica- tion suggests syngas purification needs.

The most sulphurisation. important





This operation is currently performed in syngas at industrial scale with system in which the gas is cooled.

Hot desulphurisation would increase strongly the global efficiency of the process.

Purification of syngas from sulphur compounds at high temperature are under development. The op- eration can be performed both inside the gasifier and in external units (in this second case the purification efficiency is much higher), by using appropriate abatement systems

Other purification steps, like dust and tar can be considered not strictly necessary for the iron ore reduction step in the shaft furnace. However the implementation in the cycle of specific units for dust and tar abatement would increase the life cycle of plant components and flow lines.


The present work is part of the ULCOS program, which operates with direct financing from its 48 partners, especially of its core members (Arcelor- Mittal, Corus, TKS, Riva, Voestalpine, LKAB, Saar- stahl, Dillinger Hütte, SSAB, Ruukki and Statoil), and has received grants from the European Commission under the 6th Framework RTD program and the RFCS program1.


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[2] G.Vizzini, A.Bardi, E. Biagini, M. Falcitelli, L. Tognotti, “Prediction Of Rapid Biomass Devolatilization Yields With An

Upgraded Version Of The Bio-CPD Institute Italian section, June 2008



1 Priority 3 of the 6th Framework Programme in the area of “Very low CO2 Steel Processes”, in co-ordination with the 2003 and 2004 calls of the Research Fund for Coal and Steel

T. Buergler and A. Di Donato


[3] G. Vizzini, M. Falcitelli, E. Biagini, L. Tognotti: Modello di Devolatilizzazione per Gassificazione di Biomasse. Rapporto tecnico, Consorzio Pisa Ricerche, Aprile 2008.

[4] K. Ericsson, L.J.Nilsson - Biomass and Bioenergy 30 (2006) 1–15

[5] A. Nikolaou, M. Remrova I. Jeliazkov: Biomass availabil- ity in Europe. Lot 5: Bioenergy’s role in the EU Energy Market (2003). http://ec.europa.eu

[6] G. Fiorese, M.Gatto, G. Guariso; 14° conference of Italian society of ecology, October 2004

[7] D. Coaloa: Il mercato della biomassa da coltivazioni arboree in Piemonte” Workshop “Le produzioni di biomassa da coltivazioni arboree a ciclo breve in Piemonte. Primi risultati del programma regionale di ricerca, sperimentazione e dimostrazione BIOFIL. Lombriasco (TO) 19 January 2007

[8] S. Pasini: Agroenergie e nuove opportunita’ di Sviluppo in sinergia con il territorio. Rovigo, 19 marzo 2008.

[9] W. Righini: Centrali a Biomassa Esperienze dell’uso energetico del legno. Pisa, 15 giugno 2005).

[10] R. Cheeley: Combining gasifiers with the Midrex® direct reduction process. Gasification Conference Amster- dam, Netherlands; 11-13 April 2000

[11] D. J. Stevens: Hot Gas Conditioning: Recent Progress with Larger-Scale Biomass Gasification Systems; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. NREL/SR-510-29952.

[12] Z. Haq: Biomass for Electricity Generation; Energy Information Administration (http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/analysispaper/biomass/)

[13] I. Escobar, H. Oleschko, K.J. Wolf, M. Müller: Alkali removal from hot flue gas by solid sorbents in pressurized pulverized coal combustion; Powder Technology, Vol. 180, N. 1-2, 14 January 2008, pp. 51-56

[14] D. Dayton: A Review of the Literature on Catalytic Biomass Tar Destruction; NREL/TP-510-32815 - December 2002 (DOI 10.2172/15002876) available on-line: http://www.osti.gov/bridge

[15] R. Alvarez-Rodríguez, M.C. Clemente-Jul: IGCC sulfur compounds abatementwith earth alkaline sorbents. Interna- tional Conference on Coal Science and Technology. The University of Nottingham. 28/08-31/09 2007.

[16] R. Alvarez-Rodriguez, M.C. Clemente-Jul: Mejoras de la eficiencia de las centrales GICC mediante desulfuración en caliente: Procesos de adsorción del sulfuro de hidrogeno en los gases de gasificación e inertización del sulfuro de calcio. Actas del GEC 07.Pags.147-148. ISBN 84-611-9858-0. Ed. Instituto de Carboquímica-CSIC. Teruel, 2007

SP12 – ULCOS-4, October 2008

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