Box 2: Poverty, Social Indicators and the MDGs
While the income indicator data o f the 2001 survey have not beenh l l y aggregatedand analyzed, it i s expected :hat thepoverty levelon an income basis will be less than the 70 percent recordedin 1996: this reduction i s :xpected as a result o f the strong average real GDP growth rate o f 5% since the 1994 devaluation. According :o an access-to-servicesindex constructedfrom the 2001 household survey data, 63.8% o f the populationwere :stimated to be living in poverty in2001. On this basis, poverty affects 75.9% of the rural population, versus mly 30.1% o f the urban population. Poverty levels are the lowest in Bamako with only 28.6% o f the population consideredpoor, while the highest levels are in Kidal with 92.8% o f the residentsbeing poor. In terms o f poverty depth, the region o f Mopti has the highest rate of 53.1% while Bamakohas the lowest o f 14.8%.
Gender Issues andPoverty. Gender analysis o f poverty reveals a strong interconnection o f the status and Dpportunities available to women and overall poverty. For example, maternaland child mortalityrates significantly drop with the rise in the levelo f the mother’s education; the more educatedmother is also more aware o f contraceptionpossibilities. According to a 1997 survey led by the Observatoryfor Employmentand rraining, women make up 65% o f the informal sector but only 32.75% o f the formal sector. While a full gender analysis does not yet exist for employment, accordingto the 2001 Demographicand HealthSurvey, 40% o f women (aged 15 to 49) work in agriculture, o f whom only 58% are paid for their work. For the remaining60% who do not work in agriculture, only 8% are not paid for their work.
Health andeducationindicators inMali, despite improvements,are among the lowest in the world with a significant disparity between rural and urbanareas as demonstratedby the access-to-servicesindex described above. Fewer rural children attend school, notably fewer girls, and rural infant and child mortality rates are significantly higher than in urban areas. The poor are less likely to use health services, particularlythe rural poor, and tend to spend proportionately less on health care. The 2001 Demographic and Health Survey confirms that healthbehaviors are influencedby the mother’s educationlevel and access to basic services and information.
Mali is expectedto face a major challenge in achievingthe Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as there i s (iweak capacity in delivering basic services; (ii) poor cross-sectoralintegration o f activities; and (iiilong delays in carrying out policy reforms. As shown in Attachment 1, there is a lack o f baseline data for many goals. Achievement o f the goals, however, i s further complicatedby the lack o f an integratedstrategy to do so, reflecting the multisectoral aspect o f reaching MDGs. For example, the 2001 Demographic and Health Surveyrevealedthat healthconditions are tightly related to factors outside o f the health sector, such as monetary income. However, the PRSP treats such issues as child mortality as a health issue. Despitethese constraints,there has been an important positive trend since 1997/98 in improvingcertain healthand education indicators as shown inTable 1.
5 1.5 yrsC
Table 1: Slowly ImDroving Social Indicators
Life expectancy Gross primary enrollmentrate
Student-to-teacher ratio Access to health care (15 km)
Utilization(assistedbirths) Access to water
a = 1999; b = 1998; c = 2002