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    • 88.

      For the purpose of the present Decision, it can therefore be concluded that the geographical scope of the market for intermediation in online advertising is at least EEA-wide.

      • 6.2.3.

        Provision of online display ad serving technology

  • 89.

    From a geographic point of view, the notifying party submits that the market for ad serving is at least EEA-wide if not worldwide. For instance, DoubleClick has servers only in the [Four Member States]* but sells in most other Member States and it obtains [>50%]* of its advertiser-side revenues and [>20%]* of its publisher-side revenues from global or pan-EU deals.

  • 90.

    The market investigation confirmed that the market for the provision of online ad serving technology is at least EEA-wide, essentially for the same reasons brought forward by the notifying party. Depending on the size and business organization, it appears that ad serving is bought on a cross border basis in the EEA.

91. It can therefore be concluded that the market for the provision of online ad serving technology is to be considered at least EEA-wide in scope.



    • 7.1.

      Position of the parties in the relevant markets

      • 7.1.1.


  • 92.

    Google is currently active in the online advertising market (i) as a publisher, with

its own search engine web page Google.com (and its national web pages such as google.fr, google.it), and (ii) as an intermediary with its ad network (AdSense). Google sells only search-based text ads on its own web pages, while it offers both search-based and contextual text ads on the websites of publishers that participate in the AdSense network45.

  • 93.

    Google sells ad space, intermediation services and publisher/advertiser ad serving tools as part of a bundle. For advertisers, Google offers "AdWords", an auction-based advertising programme allowing advertisers to place their ads on Google's search pages or on the websites of the Google AdSense network. For publishers, Google offers "AdSense", which has two product families: "AFC" which focuses on placing contextual ads targeted to the content of the publisher's site and "AFS" which delivers text ads based on the results of queries typed into the Google search box embedded in the publisher's website.

  • 94.

    Google currently only supplies publisher’s ad serving tools for its own Google AdSense network and not on a stand-alone basis. On the advertiser’s side, every customer buying ad space from Google (both on Google’s website and on


AdSense can serve display ads as well but in view of Google's refusal to serve third-party ad tags and to send cookies, advertisers have tended to serve display ads through other networks. Google estimates that its share in the display online ad segment is about [<5%]* .


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