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have their historical delivery migrated to their new ad serving platform can do so with minimal time and expense by allowing DoubleClick to perform a data transfer or using an outsourced ad operations company that would assist in the migration process.



Both advertisers and publishers identify training of personnel in new ad

serving tools as a relevant switching cost. However all ad serving systems accomplish the same goals using similar concepts based on similar factors. Therefore experienced users can adapt to a new system. Moreover, there is generally only a limited number of publisher's staff involved in campaign management and ad trafficking that needs to be trained (and ad serving providers propose these training sessions, sometimes even for free).

Time constraint

  • 142.

    Finally, the timing issue could be particularly costly if switching to a competing ad serving supplier implied a disruption in advertising revenues (which are particularly crucial for online publishers relying on this sole source of revenues). However the speed with which switching may occur primarily depends on the amount of time IT personnel require to complete the task.

  • 143.

    It is possible for customers to transfer information relating to their ad campaigns without disrupting their business operations. This can be done through "object migration". Object migration is typically done by data migration tools provided by the ad serving provider, or by the customer or by an outsourced ad operations company manually re-trafficking the campaigns. Customers with existing ad sales relationships that will continue to be met through their new ad server can migrate current “objects” when changing ad serving platforms.


Some respondents have provided evidence about actual switches that took

place in a relatively short period of time. The timing involved in performing such tasks can therefore be rather limited. For instance, a major European incumbent telecommunication operator indicated that it took 3 months to switch from DoubleClick to Falk, before the latter was acquired by DoubleClick; a significant shopping website switched from DoubleClick to a combination of a "home grown" solution combined with Yahoo! in 4 months; a leading pay-TV operator stated that switching would take 4 working days, whereas NRJ switched from DoubleClick to Smart Ad Server in 1 month (NRJ switched because DFP was too complicated); lastly, Paru-vendu said that the re-tagging procedure takes about 15 days. Ad serving operators are also ready to cover part of the switching costs in order to attract customers or to help in the switching process. Moreover, ad serving providers (CheckM8 amongst others) assist publishers to manage the


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