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Advertiser side




Publisher side




Overall display




provided by the notifying party, the market shares of DoubleClick including in- house would be:

Collection and current use of data by DoubleClick and related direct network effects in ad serving

  • 179.

    Another aspect that determines DoubleClick's market position in ad serving is the extent to which Double Click can benefit from network effects in the ad serving market due to the large amounts of customer-provided-data (hereafter, CPI data) it collects on its servers hosting its products DFP and DFA on behalf of its customers (compared to the more limited amounts of CPI data collected by its competitors in the ad serving market)109.

  • 180.

    Ad serving naturally produces a number of data records each time an ad is served. The server serving the ad may store these records. As billions of ads are served on the internet every day, the total number of such records is large. DoubleClick, a market leader on the markets for advertiser side and publisher side ad serving, collects, on behalf of its customers, only a fraction of all such data on its own servers hosting its DFP and DFA products.


In general, two types of data have to be distinguished: (1) Data created on the

advertiser side by use of DFA; (2) Data created on the publisher side by the use of DFP.

Data created by the use of DFA


Each time a user visits a publisher’s web page on which an ad from an

advertiser using DFA is to be displayed, DFA automatically receives information about the user (by way of DoubleClick's ad tag embedded in the source code of the web page)110. It needs this information because it must be able to send back the actual ad to the user's computer. The data collected by DFA therefore contains information about a subset of the web-browsing behaviour of the user across the websites of all the publishers who carry ads of DFA customers, that is to say advertisers. This information as a whole would be highly valuable for advertisers, because it would allow better targeting of ads and consequently an increasing return on investment (ROI) for advertisement spending (indeed, if a user's behaviour can be followed across several publishers' websites, this would provide additional, valuable information on the user). Advertisers would be drawn to an ad serving provider that could leverage this data to serve them better. Publishers may also be interested in this data, because, incorporated in the


The amount of CPI data of DoubleClick's competitors is deemed more limited because they have less customers and customers of a lesser "quality".


See the various steps leading to an ad being served in footnote 23.


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