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On appeal, Microsoft renews both arguments about the meaning of “distinct.”

We review the district court’s claim construction de novo. Cybor Corp. v. FAS Techs.,

Inc., 138 F.3d 1448, 1454-55 (Fed. Cir. 1998) (en banc). To ascertain the scope and

meaning of the asserted claims, we look to the words of the claims themselves, the

specification, and the prosecution history. Phillips v. AWH Corp., 415 F.3d 1303, 1315-

17 (Fed. Cir. 2005) (en banc); see also 35 U.S.C. § 112 ¶ 2; Innova/Pure Water, Inc. v.

Safari Water Filtration Sys., Inc., 381 F.3d 1111, 1115-16 (Fed. Cir. 2004) (holding that

the claims are not “presumed” to be restricted to the embodiments disclosed in the

specification). We conclude that the district court properly rejected both of Microsoft’s

proposed limitations.

A. Separate Files

To determine whether “distinct” adds the requirement of storage in separate files,

we begin with the claim language. See Phillips, 415 F.3d at 1312. In this case, the

claim’s plain language does not require storage of the metacode map and mapped

content in separate files. The term “file” appears nowhere in the ’449 patent. Instead,

the claims use “storage means”; the specification uses “structures.” ’449 Patent col.16

ll.22-26, 53; see also id. at col.4 ll.7-13, 21-24. Both “storage means” and “structures”

are

broader

terms

than

“file,”

suggesting

no

particular

format.

At

trial,

i4i’s

expert

testified that a person of ordinary skill in the art would understand “structures” to store

and

organize

data,

but

not

as

limited

to

a

particular

storage

format.

Indeed,

the

specification arguably renounces particular formats by defining “document” as a “non-

random aggregation of data irrespective of its mode of storage or presentation.” Id. at

col.4 ll.57-59 (emphasis added).

2009-1504

8

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