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sample. In addition, they pointed out that favorable trends for the risk factors for obesity, diabetes and hypertension may well continue to increase at levels greater than 92 nmol/L conferring additional health benefits. In addition, their results were regarded as consistent with the established literature that suggests a role for vitamin D in promoting insulin sensitivity and preventing diabetes. They also present plausible biological mechanisms for some

Editor’s comments: It is clear that there is a relationship between vitamin D status and a wide

variety of disorders.

This must be in part due to the

role vitamin D plays cellular processes. In

in a very large number addition, as indicated in

of an

article doses

reviewed above, humans tolerate of vitamin D without any apparent

very large ill effects.

Also, a recent paper that of an intervention study

presented regarding

negative vitamin

results D and

of the observed dependencies on vitamin D. Martins, D. et al. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and the Serum Levels of 25-Hydrfoxyvitamin D in the United States. Archives on Internal Medicine, 2007, Vol. 167, June 11, pp. 1159-1165.

cardiovascular 54) will not be

events (Circulation, 2007;115:846- reviewed simply because the doses

used for vitamin is not surprising

D were so small (400 no effect was seen.

IU/day)

that

it

NEWS BRIEFS

FOOD

ADDITIVES

AND

HYPERACTIVE

BEHAVIOR IN CHILDREN A randomized, double-blind,

placebo-controlled

study has just reported that tested artificial food color and other additives in the context of hyperactivity in 153 3-year olds and 144 8- to 9-year olds. Both parents and teachers were involved in rating the outcomes. Aside from the artificial food- coloring agents, sodium benzoate was the only other additive tested. Significant adverse effects were observed for artificial coloring agents or sodium benzoate preservative or both in that these substances increased hyperactivity in both age groups, a result that the authors suggest extends to the general population of children in these age

groups. McCann, D. et al.

Food Additives and Hyperactive

Behavior in 3-Year-old and 8/9-year-old Children in the

Community. A Controlled Trial.

Randomized, Double-Blinded, placebo- Lancet, 2007, published ahead of print

(twice the relative risk). In addition, for those with MRI data available, the risk of atherosclerotic plaque in the aorta was three times higher in those with the largest WHR compared to the smallest WHR. WHR was also found to be a better predictor of coronary calcification than the body mass index or waist circumference alone. WHR for the lowest and highest quintiles were < 0.906 and > 1.009 for

men and < 0.802 and > Abdullah, S.M. et al. Measures of Overweight

0.92 The and

for women.

association of

Differing

Obesity with

Prevalent

Atherosclerosis. Journal of the American Cardiology, 2007, Vol. 50, pp. 752-59.

College

of

MAGNESIUM INTAKE AND THE RISK OF

TYPE-2 DIABETES There have been a number of observational studies

of the association diabetes, but the totally consistent.

of magnesium intake and type-2 picture that emerged was not In a recent meta-analysis of 7

(DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61306-3).

cohort studies of magnesium from supplements, the combined participant

foods or population

WAIST-TO-HIP RATIO ATHEROSCLEROSIS

AND

Investigators obtained data from the Dallas Heart Study which involved a large, multiethnic urban population of patients on whom electron beam tomography had been done to access coronary plaque and where MRI data was available to determine aortic plaque. It was found that the likelihood of coronary calcification, i.e. coronary atherosclerosis, increased in direct proportion to increases in waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Individuals in the highest as compared to the lowest quintiles of WHR had greater than a four times increased in risk

The

result

risk

factors

of prevalent coronary calcification. remained after correcting for standard

was 286,669 with overall relative risk magnesium intake with similar results

10,912 cases of diabetes. The per 100 mg per day increase in was 0.85 (15% risk reduction) when the data was stratified for

either

supplemental

or

dietary

intake.

These

results

combined cohort

were

even though 4

of the

from the

statistically

significant

7 studies

individually failed to The authors point

achieve statistical significance. out that one hundred mg of

magnesium whole grain beans, 1.4

would be supplied by four slices of bread, four cups of oatmeal, one cup of cup of nuts, 4 tablespoons of peanut

butter, ½ per day, reduction

cup of cooked spinach or and would on average of the risk of diabetes.

three

bananas

yield

a 15%

International Health News

November 2007

Page 7

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