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Spielvogel - Chapter 16  -  “Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth:

The Scientific Revolution and the Emergence of Modern Science”

Focus Questions:

What developments during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance contributed to the Scientific Revolution of the 17th c.?

What did copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton contribute to a new vision of the universe, and how did it differ from the Ptolemaic conception of the universe?

What role did women play in the Scientific Revolution?

What problems did the Scientific Rev. present for organized religion, and how did both the church and the emerging scientists attempt to solve these problems?

How were the ideas of the Sci. Rev. disseminated, and what impact did they have on society?

In what ways were the intellectual, political, social, and religious developments of the 17th c. related?

Outline:

  I. Background to the Scientific Revolution

A. Strict unquestioning frameworks hindered medieval scientists

B.  Renaissance humanists and artists use new sources

C. Technical problems and innovations were practical and often outside univ.

D. Renaissance saw math as a key to more than just the technical

E. Hermetic magic, alchemy, and astrology helped people think in new ways

 II. Toward a New Heaven: A Revolution in Astronomy

A. Christina theology mixed w/ ideas of Ptolemy and Aristotle in mid. ages

B. Copernicus (1473 -1543) shifts astronomy to heliocentric ideas

C. Tyco Brahe (1546-1601) builds observatory and influences Kepler

D. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) develops three laws of planetary motion

E. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) has influential work, but it is condemned

F. Isaac Newton is most important scientist of the age

III. Advances in Medicine

A. Medieval medicine had been influenced by Galen (2nd c. AD)

B. Paracelsus (1493-1541) uses chemical philosophy and macrocosm-microcosm principles

C. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) - On the Fabric of the Human Body - anatomy

D. William Harvey (1578-1657) - theory of the circulation of blood

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