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Spielvogel - Chapter 16 - “Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: - page 2 / 2

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 IV. Women in the Origins of Modern Science

A. Women had to pursue science informally

B. Margaret Cavendish (6123-1673) wrote tracts on scientific observation

C. Maria Sibylla Merian (1647-1717) uses craft traditions to illustrate book of

entomology

D. Maria Winkelmann (1670-1721) works in astronomy with husband Gottfried Kirch

E. Querelles des Femmes - arguments about women change little of the debate

  V. Toward a New Earth:  Descartes, Rationalism, and a New View of Humankind

A. Descartes’ background

B. Doubt and the separation of mind and matter

 VI. The Scientific Method

A. Francis Bacon (1561-1626) builds new foundation on inductive principles

B. Descartes emphasized deduction and mathematics

C. Newton synthesizes the two

VII. Science and Religion in the Seventeenth Century

A. In struggle betw science and old religious ideas, science was winning

B. Benedict de Spinoza (1632-77)  - reason leads way to happiness

C. Blaise Pascal (1623-62)  failed to achieve goal of uniting Christianity and sci.

VIII. The Spread of Scientific Knowledge

A. Scientific Societies had people communicating and cooperating

B. Scientific journals spread ideas

C. Bourgeoisie sees science as way for profit through technology

D. Science used to back political ideas to reform society

 IX. Summary

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