100 CHAPTER 4
Participants from whom data are gathered.
Group to whom results are generalized.
Described by delimiting variables.
Procedures for selecting subjects.
Subjects selected from a larger population.
2. Always some
Simple random sampling.
Every member of the population has the same chance of
being selected. b. Every member of
4. Systematic random sampling.
Subjects are selected without numbering each member of the population.
may cause bias in the result.
Stratified random sampling.
Divides population into groups before sample selection.
b. Often provides a
Desirable for comparing subgroups.
Proportional or disproportional selection.
Naturally occurring groups of subjects are selected at ran-
Very common and over time results in
Convenience samples. Purposive samples.
Subjects and sampling procedures affect research in several ways.
Criteria for evaluating subjects sections of reports and sampling.
Clearly defined subjects, population, and sampling design.
Adequate and/or analyzed return rate.
Selection should be free of bias.