X hits on this document

PDF document

Fundamentals for the Consumer - page 28 / 31

95 views

0 shares

0 downloads

0 comments

28 / 31

100 CHAPTER 4

OUTLINE SUMMARY

  • I.

    Subject selection.

    • A.

      Participants from whom data are gathered.

    • B.

      Population.

      • 1.

        Group to whom results are generalized.

      • 2.

        Described by delimiting variables.

    • c.

      Sample.

  • II.

    Procedures for selecting subjects.

    • A.

      Probability sampling.

      • 1.

        Subjects selected from a larger population.

2. Always some

error

in sampling.

  • 3.

    Simple random sampling.

    • a.

      Every member of the population has the same chance of

being selected. b. Every member of

the

population

m”st

be numbered.

4. Systematic random sampling.

  • a.

    Subjects are selected without numbering each member of the population.

  • b.

    may cause bias in the result.

    • 5.

      Stratified random sampling.

      • a.

        Divides population into groups before sample selection.

Periodicity

b. Often provides a

more

accurate sample.

  • c.

    Desirable for comparing subgroups.

  • d.

    Proportional or disproportional selection.

  • 6.

    Cluster sampling.

    • a.

      Naturally occurring groups of subjects are selected at ran-

dom.

Usuall;

    • b.

      less accurate.

  • 7.

    Nonprobability sampling.

    • a.

      Very common and over time results in

generalizable

con-

clusions.

      • b.

        Convenience samples. Purposive samples.

      • d.

        Quota sampling.

  • III.

    Subjects and sampling procedures affect research in several ways.

    • A.

      Volunteer subjects.

    • B.

      Sample size.

    • C.

      Subject motivation.

    • D.

      Sampling bias.

  • IV.

    Criteria for evaluating subjects sections of reports and sampling.

    • A.

      Clearly defined subjects, population, and sampling design.

    • B.

      Adequate and/or analyzed return rate.

    • C.

      Selection should be free of bias.

c.

Document info
Document views95
Page views96
Page last viewedTue Dec 06 20:23:38 UTC 2016
Pages31
Paragraphs1362
Words8405

Comments