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Fundamentals for the Consumer - page 8 / 31

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I

CONTENTS

USING SURVEYS IN DESCRIPTIVE AND RELATIONSHIP STUDIES 182

Cross-Sectional Surveys 182 Longitudinal Surveys 183

CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE STUDIES

I.84

Ex

Post Facto Research

184

Correlational

Causal-Comparative Research 186

CONSUMER TIPS: CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH 186

OUTLINE SUMMARY STUDY QUESTIONS 168 SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS 169

187

8. Experimental and Single-Subject Research 192

CHARACTERISTICS OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH 193

EXPERIMENTAL VALIDITY 194

History 195 Maturation 196

Selection 196 Pretesting 197

Instrumentation Replications 198

197

Treatment Subject Attrition 198

Statistical Regression 198 Diffusion of Treatment 199

Experimenter

Effects 199

Subject Effects 200

TYPES OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS

201

Single-Group Posttest-Only Design 201 Pretest-Posttest Design 202

SingleGroup

Nonequivalent-Groups

Posttest-Only

Design 203

Nonequivalent-Groups Pretest-Posttest Design 204 Randomized-Groups Posttest-Only Design 206 Randomized-Groups Pretest-Posttest Design 207 Factorial Experimental Designs 209

CONSUMER TIPS: CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING EXPERIMENTALRESEARCH 210

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