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DMV Paper-Based Workbook Course

The third instruction method mandated by the legislation was a driver education program licensed under CEC Chapter 1 (commencing with §11100) of Division 5 selected by the department to present a home-study course using printed materials based upon a model curriculum approved by the department. The paper-based course used in the study was a home-study workbook developed for the DMV by Sky’s The Limit Interactive. The workbook presented all of the content material in the order it was presented in the standardized curriculum. It also used pre-and-post quizzes for each chapter (except the first), and had short educational activities to be completed by the student throughout the workbook. Parents were required to sign after each chapter quiz verifying that their child had completed the quiz on his or her own and had reviewed the material for missed questions. The workbook also had a 36-item end-of- course test that the students were to complete at home. The parent/guardian was required to sign the end-of-course test certifying that the student had completed the test on his or her own without assistance from others. The student returned the test to the driving school that issued the course to be graded. The student was required to correctly answer at least 70% (25) of the questions on the end-of-course test to pass the course. Alternative forms of the end-of-course test were available at the provider schools to use for subsequent test attempts when the student did not pass the test. Each workbook also included a Certificate of Course Completion with an affixed validation sticker. A student was deemed to have completed the course when they passed the end-of-course exam and provided a Certificate of Course Completion with a parent/guardian signature.

Preexisting Internet or Workbook Home-Study Course

The final course required by the legislation was a driver education program that used printed materials or computer-based delivery methods, or both, and that met all of the following requirements: (a) the program had operated using a home-study format for not less than 4 years, (b) the program had provided a minimum of 2,000 hours of driver education, as described in CEC subdivision (j) §51220, and the principal of the school held a driving school operator's license issued by the department, and (c) the program was being offered by a California private secondary school. To find a program that met these requirements, the department sent a Request for Information to 3,800 potential providers, including public and private secondary schools and commercial driving schools licensed by the department. The only provider who responded that met the legislative criteria for this program was the Private Educational Network (PEN).

The PEN home-study program was available to students in the study in either workbook or internet format. PEN was given time to update their course to make it compliant with the standardized driver education curriculum upon which the other three courses in the study were based. Both the workbook and internet PEN programs present the material primarily in text format with chapter activities (generally fill-in- the-blank questions) graded by PEN. The courses also included an end-of-course test that the students were required to pass to finish the course, which was graded by PEN staff. Unlike the other instructional methods, the PEN course also involved additional fees under certain circumstances. For example, although all four methods of instruction required students to complete their course within 30 days, only PEN charged additional


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