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fees for students who finished late. Students who completed the PEN course 1 to 10 days late were required to pay $15, those 11 to 30 days late were required to pay $25, and those who were more than 30 days late were considered unconditional failures of the PEN course and were required to pay full enrollment fees to retake driver education. Students assigned to PEN who did not complete the course were considered to be dropouts and were not included in the statistical analyses for this study. (This procedure was also used for the other home-study courses as well, as explained in the Results section of this paper.) To pass the PEN course, the students had to complete the chapter activities, pass the end-of-course test, and pay any additional fees that were due within 60 days of receiving the course from a study provider school. PEN informed students by letter when they had passed the course and also mailed to the provider school that issued the PEN course a driver education completion certificate for the student.

Restriction on Course Fees

Provider schools were allowed to charge whatever fee amount they wanted for driver education as part of the study, provided that all students enrolled in the study at a given school paid the same amount regardless of the type of driver education instruction they were assigned to receive. The purpose of this requirement was to allow providers in the study to compete on price and at the same time eliminate any financial incentive for students to prefer receiving one type of instruction over another. Another advantage of having the same fee for each type of instruction in the study was that the student would know the cost of the instruction before the course fee was collected and before he or she was randomly assigned to an instruction method. The provider schools were also allowed to have a separate price structure for classroom driver education for students who did not want to participate in the study.

If a student refused to enroll in or complete the instruction program assigned, the schools were not required to refund the study course fee. Such students were, however, allowed to enroll in classroom instruction at the school as a non-participant in the study, and might have had to pay the regular non-study fee for the classroom instruction. Hence, students who refused to complete the study requirements were not necessarily given a refund, but were given the option of taking the classroom course or going to another driver education provider who was not part of the study. The numbers of students who dropped out of each instruction method for this reason are shown in the Results section. These students were not used in the statistical analyses for the study.

Provider School Procedures

Parent/Guardian Release Statement

For students at a participating provider school to be eligible to participate in the study, they must have been 15, 16, or 17 years old, able to read English at or above the 7th grade level, and not have been licensed previously. The schools provided eligible students who were interested in participating in the study with a Parent/Guardian Release Statement (shown in Appendix B). This document provided additional information about the study procedures and requirements, and was used to collect


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