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knowledge score. The mean home-study knowledge score differences that were significantly different from classroom according to the Tukey post-hoc tests are asterisked in Table 5.

The results indicate that students completing the PEN or CD courses either scored significantly higher on the knowledge portion of the exit exam, or did not significantly differ in knowledge level, compared to students taking a classroom course. Under no situation did the home-study students perform significantly worse than those who completed classroom instruction. Although there was some variation, this pattern of results was consistent across the six different statistical comparisons. For the analysis including all students, regardless of the correctness of assignment, both the PEN and CD-ROM students performed significantly better than those in classroom (ps < .05). For correctly assigned students, only the CD-ROM students performed significantly better than classroom students (p < .05), although the results also suggested a trend that PEN students performed better than did classroom students (p = .05). For those who were correctly assigned and did not receive driver training, there were no differences between any of the home-study methods and classroom (ps > .05). When the students were divided into those who did and did not have a computer, none of the home-study groups were significantly different from classroom, for either group (ps > .05). For those who were correctly assigned and did receive driver training, only students who completed CD-ROM performed better than classroom students (p < .05). Students who completed the workbook did not differ significantly in exit exam knowledge levels compared to classroom students for any of the comparisons (ps > .05).

There were also differences among knowledge levels of students completing the home- study courses. However, in no case did DMV workbook students perform better than those who completed the PEN and CD courses. In the analyses including all students, and only those correctly assigned, the PEN and CD students performed better than did those completing the workbook (ps < .05). For students correctly assigned who did not enroll in driver training, the differences of PEN and CD students compared to workbook students were no longer statistically significant (ps > .05). However, the direction of the results suggests a trend that PEN and CD students performed better than DMV workbook students (p = .07 and .09, respectively). When these students were further divided into computer and no computer groups, none of the home-study groups differed significantly (ps > .05). For those who did take driver training, the CD students performed better than did the workbook students (p < .05), but PEN and workbook students did not differ significantly (p > .05).


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