lByrd Edition vol. 5, ed. Philip Brett (London, 1989), xxxii. 2The best evocation of these years is still Philip Caraman's The Other Face: Catholic L fe under Elizabeth I (New York, 1960). The opening chapters of John Bossy's The English Catholic Community 1570-1850 (London, 1975) provide a good deal of historical and cultural back ground; see especially "Separation of Meats and Days: Feast and Fast," 110ff., and "Separation in Worship: Recusancy and the Mass," 121ff. 3Byrd Edition vol. 5, xxxii. 4The most complete scholarly account of the cycle is found in Joseph Kerman's Masses and Motets ofWilliam Byrd (Berkeley, 1981),216-340. Its liturgical complexities were first untant;led by James Jackman in his 1963 article "Liturgical Aspects of Byrd's Gradualia," Musical Quarterly 49, 17ff. 5The "garland" metaphor (or, more broadly, "decorative flourish": notulas pro coronide) is from Byrd's 1607 preface to the second book of Gradualia. 6This Mass uses the same propers as the greater feast of SS. Peter and Paul, with the excep1ion of the alleluia verse Solve iubente Deo, included by Byrd in Gradualia II. 7Byrd's introit Puer natus is scored for SATB, the only such irregularity in the proper sets; this and other unusual traits point to the Christmas pieces having been among the composed. 8Corpus Christi is in fact G mixolydian, with an F-natural in the key signature and a pervasive pull toward the subdominant. 9A handful of splendid exceptions prove the rule, chief among them the medieval Magnus Liber Organi and the Choralis Constantinus of Heinrich Isaac. IORichard Smith, The L fe of the most honourable and vertuous lady the La. Magdalen Viscountesse Montague (S. Orner, 1627),28-29. llEdmund Fellowes, William Byrd (London, 1936),43. 12John Milsom, "Sacred songs in the chamber," in English Choral Practice 1400-1650, ed. John Morehen (Cambridge, 1995), 178. 13Recordings of Gradualia are still somewhat spotty, especially outside the central group of Mass propers. The complete set of Marian Masses was recorded by Gavin Turner's William Byrd Choir in 1990 (Hyperion); this valuable CD has recently been re-released. A new set of record ings is now in progress, sung by The CardinalI's Musick under the direction of Andrew Carwood and David Skinner (ASV). It will eventually encompass the complete Latin works of Byrd. At the time of writing, about one-third of the Mass propers and associated music have been recorded in this series.