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(1)Number and Locations of Surface Water Monitoring Points. For solid waste facilities at which surface water monitoring is required, a minimum of three surface water sampling locations must be established:

(a)At the locations of likely discharges;

(b)Upstream or sufficiently distant so as not to be affected by any discharges from the facility; and

(c)Downstream of the facility.

(2)Sampling, Handling and Analysis of Surface Water. The surface water monitoring program must include consistent sampling procedures that are designed to ensure results that provide an accurate representation of surface water quality at both upstream (background) and downstream monitoring points for a solid waste facility. The approved sampling protocol must be followed throughout the monitoring period of the facility so that data acquired can be compared over time and accurately represent surface water quality.

(a)Collection of Samples.

(i)samples collected from shallow water should not include bottom sediment. In shallow moving water, downstream samples must be collected first to avoid disturbing the bottom sediments.

(ii)any sample point at which water is over ten feet deep must be checked for stratification using the field parameters conductivity, pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen. Each stratum so identified must be sampled and analyzed separately.

(iii)except as otherwise specified by the Department, all samples must be whole and unfiltered and must be collected in a manner which produces the least possible turbidity.

(b)Blanks and Duplicates. Unless otherwise approved by the Department, the following schedule for the collection and analysis of blanks and duplicates must be followed:

(i)one trip blank per cooler or shipping container for VOCs each time VOCs are taken to the lab.

(ii)one equipment blank (final rinsate blank) per sampling event. The equipment blank must be taken at the end of the sample event for each piece of non-dedicated sampling equipment used.

(iii)one duplicate for every tenth sample obtained over the course of consecutive sampling events. The duplicate sample identification must be coded such that its origin is unknown to the laboratory.

(c)Sample Handling. Continuous chain of custody documentation must be maintained for each sample. Sample containers, preservation methods and maximum holding times must be appropriate for each parameter and method involved in the monitoring program, and must be specified in the sampling and analytical work plan for the facility.

(d)Laboratory Analyses. The analytical methods used to analyze samples must be chosen in accordance with State or Federal guidance documents. Analytical methods used must, where

Chapter 405: Water Quality Monitoring, Leachate Monitoring, and Waste Characterization

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