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are specified, they tend to be approximately one hour per week over the course of the two years of supervised practice.

  • Marriage and Family Therapist: Master’s in marriage and family therapy or related discipline and two or three years of supervised clinical experience. Supervision is often specified as 200 hours of direct contact for every 1000 hours of practice, of which 100 hours must be face-to-face, or of which 100 hours must be individual supervision as opposed to group supervision. Total hours of required supervised clinical experience may be reduced for those with a Ph.D.

  • Licensed Professional Counselor: Master’s or doctorate in counseling or related field and two years (2000-3000 hours) of supervised clinical experience. In some cases, one year of experience may be credited for experience prior to earning the degree. Also, hours may be reduced for those with a doctorate.

It is notable that all professions involve supervised clinical experience prior to licensure and that the required amount of time spent in supervised practice was quite similar across the different professions. However there is some variation among states as to who may do the supervision and how much time has to be spent in face-to-face consultation with the supervisor.

Supervision Post-Licensure (Supervised Practice)

As previously noted, supervised practice by practitioners who are not licensed to practice independently (primarily social workers and master’s-level psychologists) is allowed in several states. Typically, supervision of such workers must be on site, but unlike the supervised practice required in training, the number of hours of face-to-face supervision is often not specified.

Implications of Licensure Laws for Reimbursement

It is clear that, at least in some states, the authors of licensure laws do not wish these laws to be used as mandates for third party payment. In several states, we found language such as: “Nothing in this article shall be construed to require direct third party reimbursement to persons licensed under this article” (North Carolina Licensed Professional Counselors Act, 24 NC Stat. § 90-344, 1993). Nevertheless, some third party payers would like to have more guidance from licensure laws to allow them to determine more precisely who is qualified to provide the services for which they are billed. For example, a recent report on Medicare

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