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many states explicitly prohibit the use of “psychological testing” by any professions except psychology, as seen in the following:

Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize any licensed marriage and family therapist … to administer or interpret psychological tests (Marriage and Family Therapists, KY KRS 335.300, 1999).

Promising Practices Rural Accommodations

State licensing laws, for the most part, fail to make explicit statutory or regulatory accommodations for rural mental health practitioners. However, some states do include explicit rural provisions or rural-friendly provisions within their licensing laws or rules. For example, the Wyoming psychology board may issue a provisional license to an applicant who has completed a Ph.D. program with internship but has not completed supervised post-doctoral practice and/or passed the licensing exam if “a need for psychological services exists in a rural part of Wyoming and the applicant is employed by a state or community mental health center.” These applicants have three years to complete the supervision requirements (instead of one) and up to 20 percent of the supervision time may be over the telephone. Consolidated Regulation

The frustration of policy makers in attempting to assess the adequacy of the mental health workforce to meet current needs is understandable. While there appears to be overlap in scope of services among the various professions, and some substitutability of one profession for another for some services, the language, training requirements, supervision requirements, and clinical approaches of the professions vary and are confusing. We had to examine at least five licensure laws and accompanying sets of rules in each state to determine who is authorized to do what, and we often found different language used for different professions within the same state. To overcome this inefficiency, a few states have consolidated some parts of the regulatory process.

A significant number of states have a single board to oversee two or more professions. The most common board consolidation is between professional counseling and marriage and family therapy as seen in Arkansas, Iowa, Maine, and Oklahoma. Minnesota, on the other hand, combines the board of social work with that of marriage and family therapy. Four states (Arizona, Pennsylvania, Washington, and Wyoming) have a single board for social work, professional counseling, and marriage and family therapy. New Hampshire has one board overseeing four mental health professions: psychology, social work, marriage and family


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