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therapy and counseling. To further break down the barriers among professions, the New Hampshire board requires licensees from each of the professions to obtain 25 hours of collaboration with other professionals per renewal year. Examples of collaboration given included small group meetings, consultation, study groups, and telephone conferences.

Utah’s “Mental Health Professional Practice Act” (UT § 58-60-102-112, 2001) covers the activities of all mental health providers including physicians, mental health nurse specialists, psychologists, clinical social workers, certified social workers, marriage and family therapists and professional counselors. This act places professionals on an equal playing field in terms of the scope of their practices. For example, while the rules and regulations for professional counselors and marriage and family therapists in Utah do not explicitly permit diagnosis of mental health problems, these activities are included in the scope of practice for these professions under the overarching “Mental Health” act. Telehealth and Tele-supervision

State law is typically silent about whether or not some portion or all of a professional’s supervised experience can be obtained via electronic communication, including telephone. In this section we report on states that include specific provisions for electronic supervision. In Missouri, professional counselors are explicitly prohibited from obtaining supervision through electronic media. In the same state however, marriage and family therapist rules state: “The use of electronic communication is not acceptable for meeting supervision requirements of this rule unless the communication is verbally and visually interactive between the supervisor and S- MFT.”

In Wyoming, a psychologist in a rural area working for a community mental health center may obtain up to 20 percent of his or her supervision over the telephone. In Kansas, rules for marriage and family therapy and professional counseling state that supervision must occur with supervisor and supervisee in the same physical space, “except where not practical due to an emergency or other exigent circumstances, at which time person-to-person contact by interactive video or other telephonic means maintaining confidentiality shall be allowed” (Kansas Counselor Rules, KS Rules 102-3-7a, 1998; Kansas Marriage and Family Therapist Rules, KS Rules 102-5-7a, 1998). In Colorado, licensed professional counselors and marriage and family therapists may use a number of alternative methods to completed their supervised practice requirements based on their treatment setting (with rural specifically mentioned), and the “availability of community resources”. The supervisory accommodations include group supervision, audio-visual, process recording and telecommunication. The South Dakota Board


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