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Burchell's Zebra

20,217

26,286

35,859

32,725

Impala

10,253

5,320

8,436

5,714

Grant's Gazelle

6,123

3,476

6,997

5,254

Thomson's Gazelle

6,775

6,672

5,150

4,035

Eland

6,467

3,020

3,667

2,933

Buffalo

2,318

3,318

2,655

2,717

Elephant

1,648

2,546

1,847

2,645

Hartebeest

3,786

2,019

2,131

1,724

Giraffe

1,902

1,229

1,856

1,543

Oryx

1,286

825

1,385

1,128

Waterbuck

36

438

621

279

Grevy's Zebra

416

298

870

1,002

TOTALS

61,227

55,447

71,474

61,699

(Source:  Georgiadis, Nicholas, Mpala Research Centre 2000).

While the data is not conclusive for all herbivores as a group, it would point to the hope for certain species that the Laikipia experience is a positive example and its lessons should be studied further and shared with other parts of Kenya.  

5.1.6. Threats to wildlife medicinal species.

According to a study completed in 1997, wild animals and plants are harvested throughout the East and Southern African region to make medicines for the millions of rural and other residents without access to – or who prefer not to use – “western” health practitioners.  The study found that in many areas, the demand exceeds the supply, and demand is expected to increase substantially in the future (TRAFFIC 1998). Traditional practitioners of medicine long sought such species as the endangered black rhino and green turtle as well as the common baobob, which is used to treat dysentery.  The baobob is now scarce in Eritrea and Sudan, adding to the pressures on that species in neighboring countries.   

5.1.7. Relative severity of threat to wildlife and biodiversity in general

In summary, the significant threats to wildlife and biodiversity in Kenya consist of large-scale conversion of land use from contiguous, open-access scrub/forest habitat to fenced, fragmented, agricultural use; population/immigration pressures from high-productivity agricultural areas to low or marginal areas; farmers’ and ranchers’ negative perceptions of wildlife; competition for resources; and the lack of adequate incentives, organizational capacity and support that could make a better balance between users of the system – both people and wildlife.  It is difficult to apply one level of the severity of this threat to the entire country, as Kenya is endowed with a wide range of habitats and the degree of threat varies accordingly.  Nevertheless, some systemic indicators of the problem award this threat a “extremely severe” label, indicating that swift action is required.  

5.2. Freshwater and coastal resources

5.2.1. General statistics and trends.

Global and regional importance.  Kenya has been granted a richly diverse range of aquatic systems and resources (See also:  Table 4.3 in Annex 4; Maps 2 & 3, Annex 7).   Its notable

Kara PagePage 1210/23/2006

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