Developing incentives for protection.
A range of options for protection is needed in this sector, as many freshwater wetlands are privately owned and no one approach will work for them. Incentives are needed for landowners, but also for communities, industry, agricultural interests, etc.
Supporting policy improvements and research on wetland ecosystem health.
Much support needs to be given for the draft wetlands policy, and for increased research and monitoring of wetlands and watershed health. KWS has a solid base of knowledge now and needs external support and legal authority for extending that beyond protected areas and to pulling together integrated planning processes for watersheds, etc. that involve more than one ministry or donor agency. It and other research bodies also need much more support for monitoring ecosystem health and doing studies on impacts and their sources.
Replanting and establishing nurseries for mangrove afforestation.
Coastal areas are vulnerable to erosion and fisheries depend in many areas on mangrove ecosystems as nurseries for fry. Kenya's loss of mangroves is high and there is urgent need to increase replanting and establishing local nurseries; this could be an income-generating activity for communities in coastal zones.
Considering inland aquatic tourism.
In 1990, Ksh 20 million was gained from tourism to Lake Nakuru, from some 152,000 tourists (Visser, 1991). Developing this type of venue for ecotourism through community – managed projects is an opportunity that has yet to be fully exploited.
Supporting integrated water resource management.
USAID and other donors have supported and plan to support IWRM activities in the southern coastal region, in and around several key protected areas. Community-based projects in inland biodiverse areas can also integrate water and wetland management into community NRM and land use planning processes as part of the local agroecosystem.
Supporting enhanced regional capacity to address CRM issues.
USAID/REDSO-ESA plans to support activities such as targeted studies of capacity building needs for coastal resource management within Kenya, Tanzania, Madagascar, Mozambique, and Somalia. This kind of activity can elevate the discussion of local constraints to a higher level and bring support to influence local decision-making.
Supporting water use efficiency.
USAID, OFDA and others have supported PVO programs in water use efficiency in drought- and famine-prone areas; more can be done to build on the lessons from such experiences.
6.4. Forest resources
Replicating community-based successes.
This sector, closely linked to the biodiversity sector, produced concrete suggestions for improvements, including the need to replicate community-based successes. In Turkana district, local communities established management committees to monitor vegetation cover in the district, to ensure that sustainable use levels are maintained and prevent harvesting of live trees. A complicated system of tree tenure has also evolved; trees are “claimed” by individuals, circumventing the common taboo on tree planting. Strengthening such conservation committees could lead to greater successes (Kamweti, 1999, p. 27). They should also help in preventing fires, overgrazing, etc.
Providing strong support for agroforestry, NTFP development, and community woodlots.
To relieve the heavy pressure on Kenya's tiny percentage of forested lands, focus on developing alternative sources of wood products and energy sources for domestic use is key. Few donor
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