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projects are actively implementing agroforestry or plantation improvements.  Some are conducting research, but as noted above, that is insufficient to make a change in terms of forest protection and maintenance.  Also needed are alternative species for use as fuelwood – Mwangi (2000) notes that there is a newly developed eucalyptus variety that requires little water and nutrients; stoves that fulfill all perceived needs of local people as well as cook more efficiently; food and medicinal species; etc.  


Reducing poverty.  

Researchers in the forest sector in Kenya point repeatedly to poverty alleviation as a key to reducing pressure on forests.  Alternative fuel, food, and other resources and income-generation activities are needed, such as:  beekeeping, butterflies, mulberries for silk, and the use of alternative woods for carving (instead of traditional olive and mahugu, using mango, jacaranda, and Australian blackwood, which are more sustainable).  

6.5. Agricultural resources and land use


Establishing clear policies and educating people about appropriate land tenure and land use.  

Opportunities in this field require widespread coordination within and among Kenyan institutions and the donor community.  The causes of trends in land subdivision and rural-rural migration, and the impacts of those trends on agricultural productivity and environmental degradation, are not well understood.  Studies such as those conducted by the LUCID group and other research organizations may help if widely disseminated and discussed.


Working locally to promote sustainable land use and tenure regimes.

Community-based NRM and land use planning is a key component of providing examples and promoting more systemic change.   USAID and other organizations have supported such approaches with success in that they helped build local awareness of biodiversity and how the regions surrounding protected areas are important to conservation.  Planning for enterprise development activities based on NRM will also provide an alternative for group ranches involved in considering the subdivision/conversion cycle.  


Working on dryland issues.

A range of opportunities for work in Kenya's ASALs were put forward.  Transboundary conflict over cattle and other resources, capacity-building for NGOs and local governments in arid districts, strengthening levels of food security and reducing vulnerability to drought were mentioned as the most important issues.

6.6. Energy and Urban environmental resources.


Reducing pressure on forests as source of domestic energy.  

As noted above under forest resource opportunities, community woodlots and on-farm agroforestry are desperately needed.  Other alternatives to domestic energy use, particularly in urban areas whence comes the demand for woodfuels, are also urgently needed.  


Revisiting plans for additional hydropower facilities.

Kenya and her investors may be able to take advantage of less – damaging, more efficient hydro systems now on the market if they revisit their plans for additional hydropower facilities before putting them into practice.  This would help them in future to avoid the significant flooding, water course changes, sedimentation, and other problems associated with large dam projects in Kenya's past and present.


Recognizing the integrated nature of urban – rural landscapes and society in Kenya.  

Most African cities – and Kenya is included – have a more integrated rural-urban landscape than many other regions due to historical patterns of growth and movement.  Rural environmental protection efforts would be aided by examining linkages to urban demand for raw materials and urban production of wastes.

Kara PagePage 3310/23/2006

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