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communities are allowed by KWS to graze during the dry season, livestock competes with wildlife for grazing and there is evidence of overgrazing and soil erosion. This has caused problems within the lake due to siltation.

4. South Coast

The South Coast of Kenya represents the rich coastal and marine ecosystem with a coral reef running parallel to the coastline and terrestrial and marine inter-tidal forests harboring large variety of flora and fauna.

Terrestrial Forests

The terrestrial forests are sparsely distributed with the major bloc being in Shimba Hills Game Reserve and Mwaluganje Community Elephant Sanctuary. These two are home for elephants and endemic bird species and Shimba Hills reserve harbors the endangered sable antelope. Shimba Hills forest has indigenous trees species such as Mbambakofi (Afzelia Quanzensis), Mgurure (Milicea Execelsa) and Mvule (Combretum Schumanii). It is also a catchment area for Mwachema river which drains into Diani Marine National Reserve. This makes Shimba Hills Game reserve and Mwaluganje Community Elephant Sanctuary an important game sanctuary and tourist destination in the coast province. Around Diani, remnant patches of forests are home for the black and white colobus monkey

The Kaya Forests

These are forests of significant importance to the Miji Kenda people as centers of their spiritual and cultural identity. The Kayas are used for social functions such as relaxation and rest and clan gathering (Moro). Various areas of the Kayas were set aside for burial and grave posts marked by wood (Muhingo) or plant.

The Mangrove Forests

Mangrove forests are found along the coastline from Mombasa to Vanga with the exception where the land-use (urban development, agriculture, mining and quarrying) has completely wiped out the forests such as between Likoni and Tiwi. The largest bloc of mangroves is found between Msambweni and Vanga near the Tanzanian boarder.

Mangrove forests have unique biodiversity and are breeding ground for fish and dispersal areas for the Marine National Parks and Reserves of which in the South Coast, there are Mombasa and Kisite/Mpunguti and Diani. These marine parks and reserves have a large variety of fish life, marine algae, and sea grasses. Kisite/Mpunguti, which is a complex of four islands, is an important nesting place for marine sea turtles and a breeding site for dugongs and dolphin, all of which are endangered marine animals.

Threats To biodiversity

Human/Wildlife Conflict

This is particularly experienced within Golini-Mwaluganje elephant corridor between Shimba Hills Forest Reserve to Mwaluganje forest. Despite the establishment of the Mwaluganje elephant sanctuary, some families are still producing crops within the sanctuary due to dissatisfaction arising from inequitable distribution of benefits accrued from the community sanctuary. The elephant over-population is also increasing the conflict through elephants raiding crops outside the sanctuary.

Encroachment of the Kaya Forests

Threats to Kaya forest encompass, timber trade in Afzelia quanzensis, Combretum schumanii and Milicia excelsa, settlement encroachment, forest excision, extensive farming on the periphery of Kaya forests.

Degradation of coastal and marine biodiversity

This is mainly through over-exploitation of resources such as fish through use of inappropriate fishing gear, clearing of mangroves for poles and fuelwood, coral collection and trampling of coral reef during tourists

Kara PagePage 4510/23/2006

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