© D.L. Crumbley
Three M’s of Financial Reporting Fraud
Manipulation, falsification, or alteration of accounting records or supporting documents from which financial statements are prepared
Misrepresentation in or intentional omission from the financial statements of events, transactions, or other significant information
Intentional misapplication of accounting principles relating to amounts, classification, manner of presentation, or disclosure
Source: Zab Rezaee, Financial Statement Fraud, 2002, John Wiley.