The study was empirical and based on micro-level data, or it reflects a methodological improvement.
The study was published after 1990, it is considered seminal (e.g., the HIE), or it represents the only instance of an estimate for a particular population or type of service.
Our search started with recent articles included in compendiums by Cutler (2002a), Ringel
et al. (2002) and Morrisey (2005). We reviewed the reference lists from identified articles and
also searched various online listings, research reviews, and electronic databases such as
EBSCOhost, ISI Web of Knowledge, and NEXIS. From these resources and through consulting
researchers involved in this subject, we identified more than 100 published and unpublished
studies (see appendix A for a bibliography), among which more than 80 studies met the above
criteria and are reviewed in this report (Table I.A).
NUMBER OF STUDIES REVIEWED, BY TOPIC
Health Insurance Number of Studies
Health Care Services Number of Studies
Medicare + Choice
Medicaid and SCHIP
Crowd-out of private coverage Income Elasticity
Price Elasticity Employer offer Employee take-up Employee choice of plan Nongroup market Public programs
8 10 11 6
Price Elasticity Overall health services Prescription Drugs Acute care
Inpatient and outpatient Emergency department Mental health Dental Long-term care
3 1 5 1 2
Studies may be double counted if they cover more than one topic.
The following chapters offer background information, reviews of specific studies, and
discussion of overarching issues. Chapter II offers a definition on alternative measures of