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  • The study was empirical and based on micro-level data, or it reflects a methodological improvement.

  • The study was published after 1990, it is considered seminal (e.g., the HIE), or it represents the only instance of an estimate for a particular population or type of service.

Our search started with recent articles included in compendiums by Cutler (2002a), Ringel

et al. (2002) and Morrisey (2005). We reviewed the reference lists from identified articles and

also searched various online listings, research reviews, and electronic databases such as

EBSCOhost, ISI Web of Knowledge, and NEXIS. From these resources and through consulting

researchers involved in this subject, we identified more than 100 published and unpublished

studies (see appendix A for a bibliography), among which more than 80 studies met the above

criteria and are reviewed in this report (Table I.A).

TABLE I.A

NUMBER OF STUDIES REVIEWED, BY TOPIC

Topic

Health Insurance Number of Studies

Topic

Health Care Services Number of Studies

Medicare + Choice

4

Medicaid and SCHIP

1

Military CHAMPUS

1

Crowd-out of private coverage Income Elasticity

4 5

Total

50

Price Elasticity Employer offer Employee take-up Employee choice of plan Nongroup market Public programs

8 10 11 6

Price Elasticity Overall health services Prescription Drugs Acute care

7 13

Inpatient and outpatient Emergency department Mental health Dental Long-term care

3 1 5 1 2

Income Elasticity

4

Total

36

Note:

Studies may be double counted if they cover more than one topic.

The following chapters offer background information, reviews of specific studies, and

discussion of overarching issues. Chapter II offers a definition on alternative measures of

3

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