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Study

Population

Demand Measure

Price Variation

Elasticity Estimate

Leibowitz and Chernew (1992)

Firms with fewer than 50 employees

The probability of a firm offering insurance coverage

(1) Variation in tax rates across states

(1) –2.9

(2) Variation in premium quotes across locations

(2) –0.8

Feldman et al. (1997)

Firms with fewer than 50 employees in Minnesota

The probability of a firm offering insurance coverage

Imputed premium faced by firms, based on observed premiums

–3.91 (single coverage)

–5.82 (family coverage)

Royalty (2000)

Employees in firms of all sizes

The probability of an employee getting insurance offer from employers

Variation in marginal tax rates across states

–0.63

Gruber (2001)

Employees in firms of all sizes

The probability of an employee getting an offer and being eligible

Simulated tax price of insurance for individual workers across states and over time

–0.6

Marquis and Long (2001)

(1) Firms with fewer than 100 employees

The probability of a firm offering insurance coverage

Cross-section variation in prices, with direct information on premium quoted to employers without offer

(1) –0.14

(2) Firms with more than 75% low wage workers

(2) –0.25

Hadley and Reschovsky (2002)

Business establishments with fewer than 100 employees

The probability of an establishment offering insurance coverage

Imputed premium faced by firms, based on observed premiums

–0.54

Kronick et al. (2004)

Firms with fewer than 50 employees that didn’t currently provide insurance

The proportion of eligible employers who purchased the product

Premiums were experimentally varied with a randomized controlled trial

-0.14

Gruber and Lettau (2004)

Firms of all sizes

(1) The probability of offering insurance coverage

Variation in tax subsidies across workers of different income levels, over time and across states

(1) -0.25

(2) Expenditures for insurance conditional on offer

(2) -0.7

reflects, in part, the use of very different data sources (some specific to a particular geographic

area), as well as differences in how price is measured and the methodological approach taken.

Generally, however, the demand for health insurance by employers is inelastic.

TABLE III.A

SUMMARY OF RECENT STUDIES ON THE PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND FOR HEALTH INSURANCE – EMPLOYER OFFER

10

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