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TABLE IV.A

SUMMARY OF RECENT STUDIES ON THE PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND FOR HEALTH CARE SERVICES—OVERALL AND BY TYPES OF SERVICES

Newhouse et al. (1993)

Participants in HIE

Expenditures for prescription drugs

Smith (1993)

Enrollees in a national prescription drug card service

(1) Number of prescriptions (2) Total cost of prescriptions

Motheral and Fairman (2001)

Employees from multiple firms but enrolled in one PPO plan

(1) Number of prescriptions (2) Total cost of prescriptions

Joyce et al. (2002)

Employees from 25 large employers

Total cost of prescriptions

Newhouse et al. (1993)

Participants in the Health Insurance Experiment (HIE)

Eichner (1998) Van Vliet (2004)

Employees in a one large employer

Middle- to upper-income individuals covered by one large insurance company in the Netherlands

Goldman et al. (2004)

Employees from 30 employers with 52 health plans

Number of prescriptions in eight therapeutic classes

Gibson et al. (2005)

Employees from multiple large firms

Number of prescriptions

Lansman et al. (2005)

Enrollees in four geographically diverse managed care plans

Number of prescriptions, by drug classes

Klick and Stratmann (forthcoming)

Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in Medigap

(1) Number of prescriptions (2) Total cost of prescriptions

Study

Population

Demand Measure Overall Health Services Total medical expenditures

Total medical expenditures Total medical expenditures

Prescription Drugs

Copayment change resulting from moving from two-tier to three-tier plan

(1) –0.21 (2) –0.24

Copayment changes resulting from multi-tier formulas, doubling copayments in each tier, or mandatory generic substitution Doubling copayment rates

–0.22 to –0.44

–0.25 to –0.45

Price Variation

Elasticity Estimate

Coinsurance rates across plans

–0.17 to –0.22

Out-of-pocket costs Deductiblesa

–0.62 to –0.75 –0.14

Coinsurance rates across plans

–0.17

Copayment rates

(1) –0.10 (2) not significant

Copayment rates

–0.04 –0.10 to –0.60

Copayment changes resulting from moving from two-tier to three-tier plan

Coinsurance rates across Medigap plans

(1) –1.01 (2) –0.69

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