2) description of physical appearance, including dress;
3) association with objects, surroundings, possessions, or with
images directly introduced by the narrator;
4) direct discussion and analysis of the character by the narrator;
5) actions and behaviour, whether described or represented;
6) talk by the character, including
a) talk as action or performance (lying, boasting, betraying,
b) talk as self-defining via vocabulary, dialect, rhetoric
c) self-analysis by the character, whether accurate or not.
7) talk about the character by others, accurate or not. Such talk
both characterizes the talker and the character talked about.
8) representation or description of the character’s thoughts.*
*Adapted from Nina Baym, University of Illinois