Omnibus 2 SRCD 9
care carried forward or were maintained through Grade 3. The advantage is that higher quality child care predicts better academic achievement, as revealed by standardized achievement test scores through third grade, and that more exposure to center-based care is associated with enhanced memory. The disadvantage is that more hours in child care across the first 4 ½ years of life is linked to lower teacher-rated social skills through third grade and that more experience in center-based care is related to more mother-child conflict and teacher-rated externalizing problems. Some new effects were detected: work habits. And other effects, such as relations between child care hours and behavior problems, declined during the primary grades. It remains to be determined if these relations with early child care remain, dissipate, or grow in early adolescence, a critical transition period for many children. Because schooling is cumulative in nature with individual attainment increasingly stable with time, it will be important to determine if the observed academic advantages bring greater advancement over time and if the initial disadvantages in the socio-emotional domain are difficult to reverse. It also remains to be seen if some effects such as those between child care hours and behavior problems re-appear as the study children move into early adolescence.
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