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TABLE 1

Changes in Children’s Spending by Major Category and Major Program, 2008–09 (billions of 2009 dollars)

FY 2008

FY 2009

$ CHANGE

% CHANGE

1.HEALTH

$63.2

$86.1

$22.9

36%

Medicaid

52.1

73.7

21.6

42%

SCHIP

6.4

6.9

0.5

7%

Medicaid––vaccines for children

2.6

3.2

0.6

23%

Immunization

0.7

1.0

0.3

38%

Other healtha

1.4

1.3

*

-2%

2. INCOME SECURITY

46.4

48.5

2.1

5%

Social Security

18.7

19.4

0.7

4%

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families

13.1

13.7

0.7

5%

Supplemental Security Income

8.5

8.9

0.4

5%

Child support enforcement

3.7

3.9

0.1

4%

Veterans' benefits

2.4

2.5

0.2

8%

Railroad retirement

*

*

*

11%

3. EDUCATION

40.8

50.4

9.6

23%

Education for the disadvantaged (Title I, Part A)

15.1

15.9

0.8

5%

Special education

12.5

12.8

0.3

2%

State Fiscal Stabilization Fund

0.0

8.3

8.3

n.a.

School improvement

5.4

5.4

*

-1%

Impact Aid

1.3

1.3

0.0

3%

Dependents’ schools abroad

1.1

1.1

*

1%

Innovation and improvement

0.9

1.0

0.1

10%

Vocational (and adult) education

0.9

1.0

*

1%

Other educationb

3.6

3.6

*

1%

4. NUTRITION

39.2

48.3

9.2

23%

SNAP/Food Stamps

19.6

27.4

7.9

40%

Child nutrition

14.1

15.3

1.1

8%

Special Sup. Food for Women, Infants and Children

5.5

5.7

0.2

3%

Commodity Supplemental Food Program

*

*

*

-19%

5. SOCIAL SERVICES

21.9

22.3

0.4

2%

Head Start

7.0

7.0

0.0

0%

Foster care

4.6

4.5

-0.1

-3%

Child Care and Development Block Grant

5.1

5.3

0.3

5%

Adoption assistance

2.1

2.2

0.1

7%

Social Services (Block Grant)

1.0

1.0

*

-2%

Other social servicesc

2.2

2.2

0.1

3%

6. HOUSING

12.8

13.3

0.6

5%

Section 8 Low-Income Housing Assistance

10.4

10.5

0.1

1%

Public housing

1.7

1.8

0.1

7%

Low Income Home Energy Assistance

0.6

1.0

0.4

66%

Other housingd

0.1

0.1

*

-6%

7. TRAININGe

1.4

1.8

0.4

29%

8. REFUNDABLE PORTIONS OF TAX CREDITS

72.5

63.4

-9.1

-13%

Child tax credit

34.5

24.3

-10.2

-30%

Earned income tax credit

38.0

39.1

1.1

3%

9. TAX EXPENDITURES

40.8

37.7

-3.0

-7%

Child tax credit (nonrefundable portion)

28.8

25.6

-3.2

-11%

Earned income tax credit (nonrefundable portion)

5.0

4.1

-1.0

-19%

Dependent care credit

3.0

4.2

1.2

41%

Other tax credits/exemptionsf

3.9

3.8

-0.1

-2%

10. DEPENDENT EXEMPTION

33.2

34.3

1.1

3%

TOTAL EXPENDITURES ON CHILDREN

372.0

406.1

34.1

9%

OUTLAYS SUBTOTAL (1–8)

298.1

334.1

36.0

12%

TAX EXPENDITURES SUBTOTAL (9–10)

73.9

72.0

-1.9

-3%

ARRA

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes Yes Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Source: The Urban Institute and The Brookings Institution, 2010. Authors’ estimates based on the Budget of the U.S. Government Fiscal Year 2011 and past years. Notes * Less than $500 million. a. Other health includes Maternal and Child Health (Block Grant), children’s graduate medical education, lead hazard reduction, abstinence education, children’s mental health, birth defects/developmental disabilities, Healthy Start, emergency medical services for children, and universal newborn hearing.

  • b.

    Other education includes safe schools and citizenship education, bilingual and immigrant education, Indian education, domestic schools, the Institute for Education Studies, Junior ROTC, hurricane education recovery, and Safe Routes to Schools.

  • c.

    Other social services includes family preservation and support, juvenile justice, child welfare services and training, community services block grant, independent living, missing children, children’s research and technical assistance,

and certain children and family services programs.

  • d.

    Other housing includes rental housing assistance and rent supplement.

  • e.

    Training includes WIA Youth Formula Grants, Job Corps, Youth Offender Grants, and YouthBuild Grants.

  • f.

    Other tax credits/exemptions includes exclusion of employer-provided child care, employer-provided child care credit, exclusion of certain foster care payments, adoption credit and exclusion, assistance for adopted foster children, exclu-

sion for Social Security retirement and dependents & survivors’ benefits, exclusion for Social Security disability benefits, exclusion for public assistance benefits, exclusion for veterans death benefits and disability compensation, Qualified Zone Academy Bonds, and Qualified School Construction Bonds.

AN ANALYSIS OF FEDERAL EXPENDITURES ON CHILDREN

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