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TABLE 4

Federal Expenditures on Children in Selected Years

(billions of 2009 dollars and as percentage of total)

$

1. HEALTH Medicaid SCHIP

0.0 -- --

Medicaid––vaccines for children Immunization

-- 0.0

Other health 2. INCOME SECURITY Social Security Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Supplemental Security Income Child support enforcement Veterans' benefits Railroad retirement 3. EDUCATION Education for the disadvantaged (Title I, Part A) Special education

0.0 2.1 1.1 0.7 -- -- 0.3 0.0 0.5 -- --

State Fiscal Stabilization Fund

--

School improvement Impact Aid Dependents’ schools abroad Innovation and improvement Vocational (and adult) education Other education 4. NUTRITION SNAP/Food Stamps Child nutrition Special Supplemental Food for Women, Infants and Children Commodity Supplemental Food Program 5. SOCIAL SERVICES Head Start Foster care Child Care and Development Block Grant Adoption assistance Social Services (Block Grant) Other social services 6. HOUSING Section 8 Low-Income Housing Assistance Public housing Low Income Home Energy Assistance 7. TRAINING 8. REFUNDABLE PORTIONS OF TAX CREDITS Child tax credit Earned income tax credit 9. TAX EXPENDITURES

-- 0.3 0.0 -- 0.0 -- 0.2 -- 0.2 -- -- 0.0 -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.0 -- -- -- 0.0 0.0 -- -- 0.1

Child tax credit (nonrefundable portion)

--

Earned income tax credit (nonrefundable portion) Dependent care credit Other tax credits/exemptions 10. DEPENDENT EXEMPTION

-- -- 0.1 6.5

TOTAL EXPENDITURES ON CHILDREN OUTLAYS SUBTOTAL (1-8) TAX EXPENDITURES SUBTOTAL (9-10)

9.5 2.9 6.6

%

$

%

$

%

0%

0.8 0.6 --

5%

2.9 2.6 --

5%

1960

1970

1980

0%

0.5

3%

2.5

4%

0%

0.0

0%

1.2

2%

69%

8.0

43%

17.6

30%

100%

18.4

100%

58.2

100%

30%

10.2

55%

39.2

67%

70%

8.2

45%

19.0

33%

Source: The Urban Institute and The Brookings Institution, 2010. Authors’ estimates based on the Budget of the U.S. Government Fiscal Year 2011 and past years. Note: See table 1 for list of programs included in other health, other education, and so on.

1%

2%

22%

5%

--

26%

15%

--

-- -- 0.2

1%

-- 0.0

0.2 4.7 2.5 1.6 -- -- 0.6 0.0 2.8 1.3 0.1

2%

0%

0%

0.3 0.7 0.1 -- 0.2 0.1 0.7 0.3 0.4 -- -- 0.6 0.3 -- -- -- 0.3 0.0 0.0 -- -- --

22%

12%

4%

3%

0%

-- -- 0.2

--

-- 1.2 1.4

-- 0.0

0.3 12.6 6.8 4.1 0.4 0.3 0.9 0.1 7.2 3.2 0.8

0.8 0.7 0.3 -- 0.5 0.5 8.7 4.5 3.5 0.6 0.0 2.6 0.8 0.3 -- -- 1.3 0.2 1.6 0.9 0.3 --

15%

4%

3%

--

0.7 -- 0.7

$

%

$

9.2

9%

26.6

8.7

23.7

--

1.2

--

0.5

0.2

0.4

0.4

0.8

19.2

20%

33.4

8.6

13.4

7.4

10.8

1.1

4.8

1.1

3.0

0.8

1.4

0.0

0.0

10.4

11%

21.8

4.5

8.5

1.6

4.9

--

--

1.2

2.5

0.8

0.9

0.9

0.9

--

--

0.7

0.7

0.8

2.1

14.3

15%

22.4

7.4

9.7

5.0

9.2

1.8

3.4

0.0

0.0

4.8

5%

15.5

1.3

4.5

1.4

4.4

--

3.3

0.1

0.1

1.4

0.9

0.6

2.3

6.0

6%

8.8

4.7

7.0

0.7

1.2

0.4

0.4

1.4

1%

1.9

4.1

4%

24.9

--

0.8

4.1

24.1

6.7

7%

28.6

--

19.3

1.7

4.3

3.8

2.3

1.2

2.6

21.3

22%

31.2

97.5

100%

215.2

69.5

71%

155.4

28.0

29%

59.8

1990

%

$

%

12%

86.1 73.7 6.9

21%

2000

2009

12%

12%

12%

5%

3%

0% 16%

9%

25.6

16%

10%

10%

7%

4%

1% 12%

13%

8% 100%

82% 18%

4.1

4.2

3.8

15%

34.3

100%

406.1

72%

334.1

28%

72.0

3.2 1.0

5.4 1.3 1.1 1.0 1.0 3.6 48.3 27.4 15.3 5.7 0.0 22.3 7.0 4.5 5.3 2.2 1.0 2.2 13.3 10.5 1.8 1.0 1.8 63.4 24.3 39.1 37.7

1.3 48.5 19.4 13.7 8.9 3.9 2.5 0.0 50.4 15.9 12.8

8.3

AN ANALYSIS OF FEDERAL EXPENDITURES ON CHILDREN

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