Office of Management and Budget. 2010. Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal ear 2011. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Billen, P., D. Boyd, L. Dadayan, and T. Gais. 2007. State Funding for Children: Spending in 2004 and How It Changed from Earlier ears. Albany, NY: Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government.
Tax Policy Center. 2008. Briefing Book: A Citizens’ Guide for the 2008 Election and Beyond. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute and Brooking Institution.
Carasso, A., C. E. Steuerle, and G. Reynolds. 2007. Kids’ Share 2007: How Children Fare in the Federal Budget. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
Vericker, T., J. Macomber, and A. Kent. 2010. Federal Expendi- tures on Elementary-Age Children in 2008 (Ages 6 through 11). Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
Carasso,A., C. E. Steuerle, G. Reynolds, T.Vericker, and J. E. Macomb- er. 2008. ids’ Share 2008: How Children Fare in the Federal Budget. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
For a complete listing of references and data sources used, see the separate Kids’ Share Data Appendix and its reference section, available online at http://www.urban.org/publications/412110.html.
Clark, R., R. B. King, C. Spiro, and C. E. Steuerle. 2000. Federal Ex- penditures on Children: 1960–1997. Assessing the New Federalism Occasional Paper 45. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
Congressional Budget Office. 2010. Budget and Economic Outlook: Fis- cal ears 2009–2020. Washington,DC:U.S.Government Printing Office.
Isaacs, J. 2009a. The Effects of Recession on Child Poverty: Poverty Sta- tistics for 2008 and Growth in Need during 2009. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution and First Focus.
1 For the number of children with unemployed parents, see Isaacs and Lovell (2010). For the increase in child poverty and the num- ber of children receiving nutrition benefits, see Isaacs (2009a).
Isaacs, J. 2009b. How Much Do e Spend on Children and the Elderly? Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
Isaacs, J., and P. Lovell. 2010. Families of the Recession. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution and First Focus.
Isaacs, J., T. Vericker, J. Macomber, and A. Kent. 2009. ids’ Share: An Analysis of Federal Expenditures on Children through 2008. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
Kent, A., J. Macomber, and T. Vericker. 2010. Federal Expenditures on Pre- indergarteners and indergarteners in 2008. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
Macomber, J., J. Isaacs, T. Vericker, and A. Kent. 2010. Public Invest- ment in Children’s Early and Elementary ears (Birth to Age 11).
Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
Macomber, J., J. Isaacs, T.Vericker, A. Kent, and P. Johnson. 2007. Fed- eral Expenditures on Infants and oddlers in 2007. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government. 2010. “State Funding for Children Database.” http://www.rockinst.org/government_fi- nance/casey_database.aspx.
2 The earlier reports include Isaacs et al. (2009), Carasso et al.
, Carasso, Steuerle, and Reynolds (2007), and Clark et al.
. The children’s budget reports have been expanded to
include analyses of specific age groups, including infants and toddlers (Macomber et al. 2008), prekindergarteners and kinder- garteners (Kent et al. 2009), and elementary-age children (Vericker et al. 2009). For an overview of these analyses by age break, see Pub- lic Investment in Children’s Early and Elementary ears (Macomber et al. 2009).
3 Some states do increase unemployment benefits for families with children through a dependent benefit. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) provides financial incentives for states to do so, and as of December 2009, 13 states were paying increased benefits for workers with children. (National Law Proj- ect, “Recovery Act Unleashes a Wave of UI Reforms,” December 6, 2009). If more states provide dependent benefits, we might con- sider classifying a portion of unemployment benefits as spending on children. The ongoing evolution in how programs operate over time is one challenge we face in our attempt to classify spending on children consistently.
AN ANALYSIS OF FEDERAL EXPENDITURES ON CHILDREN