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2.

Fire Underwriters’ Survey  publication entitled “Fire Stream Tables and Testing Data”

3.

International Fire Service Training Association, “Fire Department Pumping Apparatus (7th edition)

4.

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standards 1901, 1902, 1903, 1911.

Replacement Purchase

It is wasteful economy for a municipality not to provide apparatus and equipment of the best and most dependable type.  The largest expense for a fire department is the cost of maintenance of the fire apparatus and equipment, self contained breathing apparatus, fire hall, licenses, insurances, heat and light.

The initial cost of apparatus which has a service life of at least 20 years is proportionally small in the overall budget.

The number of miles traveled and hours of pumping operation do not normally provide a basis for determining the need for replacement.  Many other factors limit the effective and economical life of an apparatus and make replacement desirable:  advancements in design of fire fighting equipment; inadequate protection for driver and fire fighters; structurally weakened chassis because of overloading; increased maintenance costs; parts replacement difficulties with old apparatus; and lack of reliability under the stress of emergency service.

Some of these drawbacks increase the dangers to the public and to fire fighters because of the increased chance of accidents.

Apparatus relieved from first-line service may be retained as reserve equipment; this should also be considered when assessing replacement costs.

Reserve funds should be in place so that a fire department is not left in the situation of shutting down because there are no funds available to continue due to broken down equipment that cannot meet the certification.

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