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provide important clues to the contexts that provide a literary text with added significance. Writers

using allusions in a text assume that readers will recognize the reference and in some fashion apply

the extra-textual information in their interpretation of this text.

“Reading between the lines” usually applies to a text and means decoding, understanding and

interpreting any implicitly referred to information. One rich source of such information is background

knowledge that is encoded by author of a text and decoded by a reader.

In the Russian Socio-cultural Workbook, we used the following definitions and classification

of idiomatic expressions. An idiomatic expression is a fixed expression which is not created in

speech but used as a whole and functions semantically as a unit. The meaning of an idiomatic

expression cannot be deduced from the literal definitions and arrangement of its parts but refers

instead to a figurative meaning that is known only through conventional use. We agreed on the

following classification of idiomatic expressions:

Origin (Russian, borrows from other languages and cultures),

Style (conversational, bookish, stylistically neutral),

Grammar (verbal, nominal, adjectival, adverbial, conjunctional, sentence-like).

Allusions are implied or indirect references to something assumed to be known. This may include a

well-known work of literature, a historical event, a person, a place, or a work of visual or

performing arts..

There are two types of allusions in the Russian language: direct and transformed. A direct allusion is

identical with a referenced text or its component. A transformed allusion changes a referenced text

or its components. For example, “To be or not to be” is a direct allusion to Shakespeare’s Hamlet,

“To beat or not to beat” is an example of a transformed allusion.

We divide Russian allusions into the following classes:

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