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build automaticity and comfort of its use in real-life communication.

In the Russian Workbooks, we suggested two groups of exercises, namely the preliminary and

primary. The primary exercises are subdivided into the following categories:

1. Identification exercise

2 Substitution exercises

3 Mimicking exercises

4 Complication exercises

5. Interpretation exercises11.

The purpose of the preliminary exercises is to introduce the studied competency components,

to demonstrate their variety and address the significance of correctly identifying them in the process of

communication. For example, in the chapter on Russian registers and genres, students read examples of

major Russian registers accompanied by detailed notes highlighting their distinguishing features.

In the case of preliminary exercises on allusions, however, their goal is somewhat different.

Since an allusion is a reference to a referenced fact, it makes sense to subdivide the process of

teaching/learning allusions into two steps. The first step is helping students master the referenced facts,

the second step is to help them master allusions based on these referenced facts..

The five types of primary exercises lead students from gaining passive recognition to active,

independent use of SCC and SLC. Students begin by working on the passive skills of recognition and

identification of a studied phenomenon in communication. They then analyze its structure and repeat it

following a particular example. Finally they move on to “active” skills of using the studied


These exercises were successfully used at various institutions such as the Foreign Service Institute, Defense Language Institute, Howard University and the , Specialized Language Training Center. They have been presented in lectures and seminars in the US, Canada and England. In the Bibliography we provide a list of works where the theoretical framework for creating and using language exercises with superior-level students effectively and efficiently has been presented.


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